tjir_v1n1atm01 - Volume 1 Number 1 Spring 2002 LEADERSHIP...

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120 Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol.1, No.1, (Spring 2002) Volume 1 Number 1 Spring 2002 LEADERSHIP CHANGE: ÖZAL LEADERSHIP AND RESTRUCTURING IN TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY Muhittin ATAMAN* The leadership group plays the most important role in foreign policy making in Third World countries. Self-perception, state identity and interests of the leadership group determine the foreign policy orientation and the direction of the state behavior that made based on gathered information and available resources and alternatives. Each leadership group redefines its “national interests,” its “enemies and friends” and its general objectives and expectations. National leaders, some of which are eager to take risks and implement certain policies that bring change, are the main players. While active leaders follow proactive foreign policy, passive leaders pursue reactive foreign policy. The orientation of the leadership group determines the alliance pattern of the state, its foreign economic relations and its ethnic policy. I posit that leadership group is more than a certain leader in power; it may be collective as well as individual. The regime or the leadership group is a broader concept than the current government. Only with the leadership change, which brings new outlooks
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121 Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol.1, No.1, (Spring 2002) and new orientations into foreign policy of the state, “regime change” occurs. Since leadership group and state identity are closely connected to one another, I discuss the state identity in the context of the leadership group. With the leadership change in a state, foreign policy orientations change since goals and priorities of the new leadership may require a new understanding in foreign policy making. The official state identity is the basis of state interests and its behaviors. I consider the state identity as socially constructed. State identity is identity or ideology of the leadership since the state identity is created, chosen or constructed by the leadership rather than by different societal groups. State identity cannot be examined without the leadership group since it reflects the main orientation, specific understandings and expectations of the elite of the leadership. When regime changes, state identity is expected to change; however, every leadership change does not introduce a new state identity. After a revolution or regime change in a state, new leaders declare their identity, whether it is a continuation of the old one or a new identity. This study concentrates on Third World countries most of which are authoritarian and alien to their societies since regimes and state identities are imposed on people from above. Most of them lack political legitimacy based on the Western standards of democracy. They face stronger threats from their people than from other states. When
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course POLS 494 taught by Professor Garymoncrief during the Fall '11 term at Boise State.

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tjir_v1n1atm01 - Volume 1 Number 1 Spring 2002 LEADERSHIP...

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