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Unformatted text preview: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol.1, No.4, Winter 2002 109 Slippery Security: National, International and Global Security Issues within Petroleum Production Heather Turcotte* Since the mid-1980s, the issue of security has become a significant point of contention for the petroleum industry in Nigeria. The environmental, economic, political and social deprivation the industry created within the oil-producing regions of Nigeria threatened not only the security of the communities of the Niger Delta, but the States and the industrys stability as well. Mass community protests against multinationals began with the Ogharefe womens protest in 1984 against US Pan Ocean. Increasingly since this protest, the Nigerian State and multinational oil corporations actions have been to secure oil production through military means in an effort to protect national and international security. However, their actions further threatened the security of the Delta communities and the future of the industry. As violence intensified, an international debate developed around the petroleum industry, which questions the security interests of the State, the corporations and the western sphere of influence over the production of oil. This paper seeks to identify the growing security concerns in the Niger Delta and provide insight as to how and why the breeches in national, international and global security continue to proliferate within the global production of oil. Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol.1, No.4, Winter 2002 110 Since the end of the Cold War, the field of security studies has expanded to incorporate notions of security beyond the threat of interstate warfare. 1 Security issues now include economic, social and environmental factors. The field is also changing to include individual and collective actors as active participants in addition to state actors as it has become apparent that state foreign policy can be affected by individuals and collective groups. A significant debate exists about the placement of these new factors within the discipline of traditional security studies. Realists claim the involvement of these factors tarnish the true intellectual meaning behind the field. They claim defense mechanisms for economics or the environment should be handled by diplomatic international institutions or framework rather than through military means. 2 However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that international institutions, particularly the World Banks involvement in extractive industries, are funding development programs that rely on military force to protect its success. In the case of Nigeria, national and international military defense is used to protect economic, social and environmental programs funded by The Bank and multinational corporations....
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course POLS 494 taught by Professor Garymoncrief during the Fall '11 term at Boise State.
- Fall '11