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Unformatted text preview: Marketing Research Primary Data Collection: What Kind, When, and How 1 Class Outline Types of primary data collected Types of qualitative research methods Types of survey administration methods Focus Groups Sources of errors in information collection Fournier's article on brand relationships 2 Types of Primary Data Demographic/socioeconomic characteristics (WHO) Psychological/lifestyle characteristics (BEHAVIORS) Attitudes and opinions (THOUGHTS) Awareness /knowledge (CONSIDERATION/LEARNING) Intentions (INTENDED ACTIONS) Motivation (WHY ) Behavior (ACTIONS), observational and experimental 3 Gap Analyses Intentions v. Behavior "I intended to buy this, but ...." Local Marketing Effects, Stockouts, stated intentions versus actual behavior, impulse buying, variety seeking Attitudes v. Intention "I like this product, but I don't intend to buy it" Link between satisfaction and intentions, understanding the drivers of purchase behavior. Motivation v. Behavior "I understand why you did what you did" Psychological Process models for behavior 4 Profiling Behaviors/Actions for different segments Demographics (Who are our customers) Socioeconomic characteristics (What are our customers like) Lifestyle characteristics (What do our customers do) 5 Types of Primary Data Collection Questioning Qualitative methods Focus groups, in-depth interviews, projective techniques Survey Research Direct, telephone, m ail, internet Observation Direct and contrived observation, content analysis, behavior-scan Experiments (We will talk about his later in the course)
Which do you believe more? 6 Basic Choices When Collecting Primary Data Questioning Degree of structure (structured versus unstructured) Degree of disguise (undisguised versus disguised) Method of administration (Personal interview, telephone interview, mail, internet questionnaire) Observation Degree of structure (structured versus unstructured) Degree of disguise (undisguised versus disguised) Setting (natural versus contrived) Method of administration (human versus mechanical) 7 Questioning versus Observation
Criteria Versatility Time Cost Accuracy for Same Data
Respondent Convenience Questioning More Less Less Less Less Observation Less More More
More More 8 Types of Qualitative Research Methods Focus groups In-Depth Interviews Projective Techniques 9 When to Use Qualitative Research
1. Exploratory Studies Probe attitudes and behavior looking for new opportunities Identify changes in market, attitudes and behavior Obtain descriptive information on new markets Establish basis for quantitative research 2. New Product Development Understand a market and identify gaps Reactions to new product concepts 10 When to Use Qualitative Research
cont... 3. Advertising Creative Development Research Guides execution How should the strategy be conveyed? Pre-test the chosen execution 4. Diagnostic Studies Understand the consumer relationship to the brand Identify wear-out of an ad campaign Evaluate the impact of a competitor's actions 11 Focus Groups Rationale: in-depth probing, unstructured discussion, ability to observe dynamics Format: 8-10 individuals, 1-2 moderators, about 1-2 hrs long, incentives for participants Tools: Products, product concepts, ad copy, protocol script, questionnaires 12 Focus Group Procedures
Formal versus informal setting One way mirror, video, etc. Introduction and ground rules Introduce and discuss materials Summary Demographic/product usage questionnaire 13 Focus Group Ground Rules
When an idea comes up for discussion, stick to that idea until the group finishes with it One speaker at a time Everyone has to participate If you disagree with what others in the group are saying, express your disagreement Don't be a sheep 14 Pros and Cons of Focus Groups Pros Good for getting in-depth Cons Results cannot be quantified Not representative Difficulty getting attendees Group process may inhibit information Enables complex issues to be discussed One person's experiences or feelings often stimulate others Process highlights differences between consumers Allows for spontaneity frank exchange Minority viewpoints may not be heard Need for skilled and experienced moderator 15 The Use and Misuse of Focus Groups by Jakob Nielsen, 1997 Focus groups are a somewhat informal technique that can help you assess user needs and feelings both before interface design and long after implementation Focus groups often bring out users' spontaneous reactions and ideas and let you observe some group dynamics and organizational issues. Since there are often major differences between what people say and what they do, direct observation of one user at a time always needs to be done to supplement focus groups. Although focus groups can be a powerful tool in system development, you shouldn't use them as your only source of usability data. 16 The Use and Misuse of Focus Groups by Jakob Nielsen, 1997 For participants, the focus-group session should feel free-flowing and relatively unstructured, but in reality, the moderator must follow a preplanned script of specific issues and set goals for the type of information to be gathered. During the group session, the moderator has the difficult job of keeping the discussion on track without inhibiting the flow of ideas and comments As with any method based on asking users what they want -- instead of measuring or observing how they actually use things -- focus groups can produce inaccurate data because users may think they want one thing when they need another 17 In-depth Interviews
Rationale: Mechanism for obtaining detailed insights, flexible Format: one-on-one (at place of business, consumption, etc.) Tools: Interview guide, schedule 18 Data Collection Toolbox In-depth interviews are often used when an agency doesn't know much about a population and wants to get preliminary ideas from the participants When you obtain your data via in-depth interviews you usually have a smaller sample and do not use random methods to select your participants. As a result, the results may not generalize to people who were not interviewed. 19 Data Collection Toolbox http://goodquestions.ucsf.edu/section3/3d_indepth.html
In-depth interviews can help: Provide a history of behavior. When conducted more than once or when conducted with someone who has been in the community for a long time, interviews can show if any change has occurred over time. Highlight individual versus group concerns. Topics that may not arise in a group situation can be addressed in individual interviews. Reveal divergent experiences and "outlier" attitudes. Groups often do not allow you to see that experiences may vary person to person. Provide a shortcut to community norms. Interviewing key community leaders (bartenders, favorite teachers, police officers, sex club managers) can give a fast overview of a community and its needs and concerns. Develop other research tools. Results from an interview can be used to generate focus group questions or help form questions for a survey.In-depth interviews can be different from focus groups in several ways: Easier. It is often easier to speak to one person and keep her attention than to address a group. Y ou can also avoid major scheduling hassles with only one person. More detailed. In an interview you have a chance to follow-up on questions and probe for meaning. 20 Projective Techniques Rationale: Certain issues are not amenable to direct questioning - Projective techniques provide a mechanism for uncovering "subconscious" response Format: Word association, sentence completion, role playing and indirect questioning ("Why does person X like that product") Tools: Visual props, scenarios, open-ended questionnaires 21 Projective techniques
Word Association (Used often in copy testing) Sentence Completion Thematic Apperception Test (Picture) Third-person techniques (Imagine a friend) Drawing Cartoon Test Group exercise: Coke vs. Pepsi, Mazda vs BMW, Nike vs UnderArmour, McDonalds vs In'n Out 22 Qualitative Methods
Upsides/Downsides: Natural settings Small scale Direct observation of consumer Realistic Researcher may influence subjects or subjects may react to researcher presence 23 Observational Methods
Rationale: Respondents may be unlikely to give "truthful" answers to other techniques Format: Household monitoring, in-store video, content analysis (Path Tracker Supermarket Data) Tools: Electronic devices, other "high tech" information collectors, product in use 24 Observational Methods
Upside/downside: We can see what people actually do Avoids interviewer bias Can be fast turnaround Researcher does not learn motives Time-consuming and expensive 25 Survey Research Rationale: To enable quantification of opinions, preferences, etc. Format: Open-ended questions, scaled questions, scenarios, ongoing versus one-shot Tools: mail, telephone, direct intercept, email, 26 Survey Research
Upsides and Downsides: Large populations Only ask questions with verbal answers High generalizability High applicability of conclusions Cannot discover structures previously unknown to researcher Reactive measurement effects Difficult to establish causation Difficult to find theoretically relevant samples
27 Types of Survey Administration Methods Mail Personal Interview Phone Internet 28 Sources of Errors in Information from Respondents
Ambiguity of question Interviewer error POPULATION sample Question RESPONDENT Answer INTERVIEWER Sampling error Non-response due to refusals or not-at-home
29 Inaccuracy in response Ambiguity of answer To Avoid Errors, Ensure ... Population has been defined correctly Sample is representative of the population Respondents selected to be interviewed are available and willing to cooperate Respondents understand the question Respondents have the knowledge, opinions, attitudes, or facts required Respondents are willing and able to respond Interviewer understands and records the responses
30 Punch-line Match the method to the project Be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of each method information usefulness threats to validity implementation difficulties/costs 31 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course MGMT 151 taught by Professor Debbieletourneau during the Fall '11 term at UC Irvine.
- Fall '11