political science chap 12, 13

political science chap 12, 13 - Chapter 12 political...

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Chapter 12 political parties Parties definitions Burke (18 th century): “a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavors the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed” Downs (20 th century): “A team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duty constituted election” -consistent on appetite for public office Parties purposes -recruit and train leaders -foster political participation -teach new citizens democratic habits -organize citizens and leaders into electoral and policy coalitions -allow citizens to hold their agents collectively responsible -channel and constrain political conflicts, promoting peaceful resolution -facilitate collective action In the constitution -not mentioned specifically -parties widely considered a threat to good government and public order -first parties not meant to be permanent -constitution shaped them -first amendment -design of constitutional government Party building incentives -need -for organization -to build stable legislative and electoral alliances -to mobilize voters -to develop new electoral techniques -to use party labels and enforce collective responsibility Three-part systems -party in government -alliance of officeholders shaping policy -party organization -electing party’s candidates -party in the electorate -voters who identify with party and vote for it Party system -two party competition -one winner, plurality vote (duverger’s law) -parties maintain system -decentralized, fragmented party coalitions -professional politicians
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Evolution of party system -first party system (1790-1824): creation of national parties -second party system (1824-1860): organizational innovation -Third party system (1860-1894): entrepreneurial politics -party machines and progressive reform -Fourth party system (1894-1932): Republican ascendancy -Fifth party system (1932-?): FDE and New Deal Coalition -Republican coalition -fifth party system begins to erode -civil rights, states’ rights -democrats splinter over Vietnam -great society -Nixon, Reagan, bush-winning coalitions
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course PLS 320 taught by Professor Snook during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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political science chap 12, 13 - Chapter 12 political...

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