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Drugs & Behav FINAL[1] - Psychology 245 Review for...

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Psychology 245 – Review for Final Sixty-five questions. Read chapters 10, 11, 12 and 13. Chapter 10 Harrison Narcotic Act Where do opiates come from? Synthetic vs. Natural vs. Semisynthetic Endorphin neurotransmission Mechanism of action Tolerance/Dependence Opiate withdrawal Behavioral Effects Chapter 11 THC mechanism of action Receptor locations CNS and PNS effects Behavioral effects Medical Marijuana Chapter 12 Know which hallucinogens go in which categories Know the mechanisms of action of LSD, Psylocibin, PCP, Ketamine, Salvia, MDMA Know general issues of tolerance, withdrawal and addiction relative to hallucinogens What are the CNS and behavioral effects of each class of hallucinogens Chapter 13 Psychiatric Drugs Antidepressants Difference between SSRI, SNRI, Tricyclics and MAOIs Know the mechanisms of action for the above Know the trade names of the SSRI and SNRIs Antipsychotics Main mechanisms of action Typical vs. Atypical which ones are which? Side effects Benzodiazepines Mechanisms of action Know that they treat anxiety Know that Xanax, Ativan and Valium are benzo Opiates/ Opioids : Chapter 10 Opiates o alkaloids found in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) o [Gk. opion = “poppy juice”]
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Opioids o compounds with opiate-like actions, including, but not confined to opiates (e.g., synthetic, endogenous opioids) History Of Opium : Native to many regions o Middle East in areas bordering Mediterranean o Laos, Thailand, Afghanistan o Mexico & Colombia Use dates back 6000 years to Sumerians Egyptians used it medically 3500 years ago Common use among Islamic peoples for medical & recreational purposes Arab traders took to India & China Western Europe learned about it from Arabs during crusades 1680 Laudanum – Opium tincture (alcohol) Next 200 years, primary consumption of opium is as drink 18 th century - development of opium smoking in China China - first laws against Opium use in 1729 o Dependence problem recognized Opium and the West: Western societies Used opium as aspirin Cheaper than liquor No negative public opinion No real problem with cops Used to soothe infants & children Teething, colic, or to keep them quiet Females used it more than males Greater # addicted Collision of cultures Chinese building railroad 1875 - San Francisco outlawed opium dens & opium smoking Laws targeted not at opium (laudanum legal), but at Chinese Federal laws prohibiting opium smoking followed Difference in Opium Use Major difference between opium use in China & West was method of consumption Laudanum Identified with Victorian Era Opening of “respectable parlors” Chinese smoked it Identified with Opium Dens Ideal of “lazy” Chinese Seen as degrading & dirty vice Morphine & the West
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1856 - development of hypodermic needle Use became widespread Doctors began injecting opium solutions (thought to sidestep addiction, thought to be purer & safer ) Used during Civil War for injuries (dependency known as “soldier’s
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