Exam 3 textbook overview

Exam 3 textbook overview - Ch.7-Cognitice and...

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Ch.7-Cognitice and Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Most people today think of themselves as broad minded and having a positive self-image. Cognitive approaches to personality view perception and cognition as the core of what it means to be a person. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution expanded thinking about human nature: how thinking changed as a child developed, was influenced by different circumstances, shaped by culture. This is a cognitive explanation- scientists were unable to behave as psychological experimenters until they were able to think a certain way. Gestalt Psychology: intellectual movement in Germany to America in 1930’s. Advocates fled fascism. Gestalt Theory view: configuration of a complex stimulus is its essence. 1. Human beings seek meaning in their environments 2. We organized sensations we receive from the world around us into meaningful perceptions 3. Complex stimuli are not reducible to the sum of their parts. Gestalt: pattern or configuration. From the Gestalt perspective, component elements of a stimulus or experience cannot be added up to re-create the original. The essence of the original resides in its complex relationships and overall configuration, which are lost when subparts are analyzed separately. Triangle isn’t drawn on the page, its constructed by the viewer. Its more than 3 straight lines, triangle relationship between three people are more than three separate relationships. Gestalt theory:primarily applied to perception and problem solving. Some aspects were put to use in the developing discipline of personality. Ex: Some researchers said even though a large object is far away and a small object that is nearby both cast similar sized images on the retina, we are able to judge size and distance accurately. Extroverts do this better, they are more focused on the outer world. Kurt Lewin: helped the Gestalt approach strongly influence personality psychology. Focused on personality and social psychology rather than perception and problem solving. Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory: field in the mathematical sense of vector forces or as a playing field of life. Focuses on life space(all internal and external forces that act on an individual. Also on structural relationships between the person and the environment. Ex: one region of life space=person’s life space. Other region=religion. For some spaces are divided with boundaries that keep issues and emotions from each region fully independent. Others have openness, so different regions of life exert more influence on one another. Contemporaneous Causation: Lewin’s definition of personality-behavior is cause at the moment of its occurrence by all the influences that are present in the individual at that moment. Because he attended to what was going on in a person’s mind at any moment, his orientation can be considered a cognitive position as well as an interactionist position. Field dependence: early but influential cognitive-perceptual approach to personality that
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Exam 3 textbook overview - Ch.7-Cognitice and...

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