Unit 1 2011

# Unit 1 2011 - UNIT 1 REASON AND ARGUMENT 1.1 WHAT IS MODERN...

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UNIT 1 REASON AND ARGUMENT 1.1 WHAT IS MODERN SYMBOLIC LOGIC? Logic Unit 1: Introduction ©2011 Niko Scharer Logic. The Study & Evaluation of Reasoning & Argument An argument probably seems logical if it look likes the conclusion must be true, based on what you are told is the case and what you already know to be true. This is because logical deductive arguments are truth-preserving : if the premises are true, then the conclusions must be true. Studying logic can help you recognize which arguments are good ones, and thus improve your ability to distinguish truths or probable claims from ones that are poorly supported by the evidence. Symbolic. Use Tidy Symbols instead of Messy Words! Using symbols instead of words lets you to focus on the logical form of the argument, so you can evaluate the reasoning of the argument without being distracted by other considerations, e.g. whether you agree with it, whether it’s interesting or has true premises, etc. Symbolization also can clear up ambiguities in meaning. Sometimes sentences, phrases and words can be interpreted different ways. Symbolization can force you to be more precise and consider exactly what is meant. Modern. After such people as ... Aristotle (384-322 BC). Aristotelian or syllogistic logic is the earliest system intended to classify and evaluate a wide range of arguments. Chrysippus (c.280-c.205 BC) developed a system of propositional logic that anticipates modern logic. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716), perhaps the father of symbolic logic, developed some of the first logical calculi. Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) laid foundations for mathematical logic, further developed by Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) and Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) in their Principia Mathematica .

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