UNIT 1
REASON AND ARGUMENT
1.1
WHAT IS MODERN SYMBOLIC LOGIC?
Logic Unit 1:
Introduction
©2011
Niko Scharer
Logic.
The Study & Evaluation of Reasoning & Argument
An argument probably seems
logical
if it look likes the conclusion
must be true, based on what you are told is the case and what you
already know to be true.
This is because logical deductive arguments are
truth-preserving
:
if the premises are true, then the conclusions must be true.
Studying logic can help you recognize which arguments are good
ones, and thus improve your ability to distinguish truths or
probable claims from ones that are poorly supported by the
evidence.
Symbolic.
Use Tidy Symbols instead of Messy Words!
Using symbols instead of words lets you to focus on the logical form of the argument, so you can
evaluate the reasoning of the argument without being distracted by other considerations, e.g. whether
you agree with it, whether it’s interesting or has true premises, etc.
Symbolization also can clear up ambiguities in meaning.
Sometimes sentences, phrases and words can
be interpreted different ways.
Symbolization can force you to be more precise and consider exactly
what is meant.
Modern.
After such people as ...
•
Aristotle
(384-322 BC).
Aristotelian or
syllogistic
logic is
the earliest system intended to classify and evaluate a wide
range of arguments.
•
Chrysippus
(c.280-c.205 BC) developed a system of
propositional logic that anticipates modern logic.
•
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
(1646-1716), perhaps the father
of symbolic logic, developed some of the first logical calculi.
•
Gottlob Frege
(1848-1925) laid foundations for mathematical
logic, further developed by Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)
and Bertrand Russell
(1872-1970) in their
Principia Mathematica
.

This
** preview**
has intentionally

**sections.**

*blurred***to view the full version.**

*Sign up*