Introduction to the nervous system

Introduction to the nervous system - Introduction to the...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the nervous system PHSI0441, Spring 2012 Textbook: Cunningham Ref: Boron and Boulpaep 1 Outline Introduction to the nervous system Divisions of the mammalian nervous system Functional unit neuron Supporting cells non-neuronal 2 3 The anatomy gives an idea about brain function Divisions of the nervous system (anatomical) Central nervous system (CNS )- consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is covered by the meninges. The meninges has three membranes. The outer membrane - dura mater ; middle - arachnoid ; and the delicate inner membrane - pia mater . Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- consists of the nervous system that lies outside the dura mater. Include sensory receptors , spinal and cranial nerves that carry action potentials , away from or toward the CNS (These nerves are bundles of PNS axons) and peripheral portions of autonomic nervous system Sensory nerves that carry messages from the periphery to CNS are afferent nerves Peripheral motor nerves that carry messages from the CNS to peripheral tissues are efferent nerves 4 5 Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Organization of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Efferent (motor) Somatic to skeletal muscle Visceral to cardiac muscle to smooth muscle 6 Divisions of the nervous system (functional) Somatic nervous system The cranial and spinal nerves General somatic afferent Neurons of CN V to the surface of head and all spinal nerves to the surface of body and limbs, needed for touch, temperature and noxious stimuli Special somatic afferent Vision (CN II) and hearing (CN VIII) General somatic efferent Striated skeletal muscle, all spinal nerves. All CN except I, II, VIII Autonomic nervous system - regulates and controls visceral functions, including heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, temperature regulation and reproductive function. Composed of parts of the CNS and PNS Visceral control is achieved by reflex arcs that consist of visceral afferent neurons, control centers in the CNS and visceral motor output 7 8 Subdivision Components Special Features Central Brain (including CN II and retina) and spinal cord Oligodendrocytes provide myelin Axons cannot regenerate Peripheral Peripheral ganglia (including cell bodies); sensory receptors; peripheral portions of spinal and cranial nerves (except CN II) Schwann cells provide myelin Axons can regenerate Autonomic Selected portions of the CNS and PNS Functionally distinct system Subdivisions of the nervous system Central nervous system Brain Spinal cord 9 10 CNS In the CNS, phylogenetically older parts lie more caudal and the newer parts lie rostral The CNS can be divided into six major regions 1. The spinal cord The 5 major brain regions- 2. telencephalon 3. diencephalon 4. midbrain 11 Telencephalon Made of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and hippocampus...
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Introduction to the nervous system - Introduction to the...

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