Metabolism HO 2012 TY

Metabolism HO 2012 TY - MICROBIAL METABOLISM Teshome...

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MICROBIAL METABOLISM MICROBIAL METABOLISM Teshome Yehualaeshet, DVM, PhD. Department of Pathology Phone: 334-727-8107 E-mail: [email protected]
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MICROBIAL METABOLISM 1. METABOLISM 1.1. CATABOLISM 1.2. ANABOLISM 2. Enzymes 2.1. Naming Enzymes 2.2. Enzyme Components 2.3. Enzymes Specificity and Efficiency 2.4. Mechanism of Enzyme Action 2.5. Factors that Affect Enzyme Activities 2.5.1. Temperature 2.5.2. pH 2.5.3. Concentration Enzyme concentration Substrate concentration 2.6. Enzyme Regulation Competitive inhibitors Noncompetitive inhibitors 2.7. Feedback Inhibition
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METABOLISM
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Why do we learn the metabolism of bacteria ?  To know how to  inhibit or stop  bacteria growth  To control their metabolism to  prolong shelf-life  of food  products (by control or block enzyme of the pathway,  Chemical Preservative ). Can be used to  detection contamination  by looking at  metabolic activity
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Metabolic Diversity Among Organisms Nutritional type Energy source Carbon source Example Photoautotroph Light CO 2 Oxygenic: Cyanobacteria plants. Anoxygenic: Green, purple bacteria. Photoheterotroph Light Organic compounds Green, purple nonsulfur bacteria. Chemoautotroph Chemical CO Iron-oxidizing bacteria. Chemoheterotroph Chemical Organic compounds Fermentative bacteria. Animals, protozoa, fungi, bacteria.
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Metabolism = Catabolism + Anabolism Metabolism Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism, enzymatically catalyzed METABOLISM
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Catabolism provides the building blocks and energy for anabolism.
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A. Move nutrients into the cell (These become substrates ) B. Catabolism (Break nutrients down) C. Biosynthesis of new compounds (Anabolism) D. Polymerization (Synthesis of macromolecules) E. Assembly of macromolecules into cell organelles. Metabolic Tasks Metabolic Tasks
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Purposes of Catabolism: Breakdown of complex organic compounds to simpler ones To release energy which is used to generate ATP from ADP and phosphate (Exerogonic) To release electrons which serve as "reducing power" for more energy production and also for biosynthesis. Cells break down sugars into CO 2 and H 2 O           CATABOLISM CATABOLISM (Degradative (Degradative ) )
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Biosynthetic  , building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones Dehydration synthesis reaction and endrogenic (Release water) eg. formation of: proteins from amino acids, nucleic acids from nucleotides Polysaccarides from simple sugars ANABOLISM ANABOLISM (Biosynthetic) (Biosynthetic)
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– Process of synthesizing macromolecules of: • Lipids • Proteins • Polysaccharides
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