tibetan_write-up

tibetan_write-up - LING 451/551 Tibetan numerals Sample...

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1 LING 451/551 Tibetan numerals Sample phonology homework write-up 1 Morphological analysis It is not immediately obvious where the morpheme boundaries fall in the data. However, it is not necessary to determine the exact location of the morpheme boundary in the morphologically complex numerals in order to observe that the order of morphemes in the numerals designating teens (10 + X) must be /‘10’ - ‘X’/, whereas the order of morphemes in the numerals referring to multiples of tens (10 x X) must be / ‘X’ - ‘10’/ , as seen in (1): (1) Order of morphemes in morphologically complex numbers /10-X/ (teens): [ ǰ ubši] (lit. 10-4) ‘14’ [ ǰ u rgu] ‘19’ [ ǰ u ŋ a] ‘15’ /X-10/ (tens): [šib ǰ u] (lit. 4-10) ‘40’ [gub ǰ u ] ‘90’ [ ŋ ab ǰ u ] ‘50’ This is because the sequence [ ǰ u] occurs in two places in these words. The sequence [ ǰ u] therefore must be part (if not all) of the morpheme ‘10’. Certain strings which must be part of the numbers ‘1’ to ‘9’ occur on either side of the part that mus t mean ‘10’. 2 Forms containing ‘10’ At issue is the morphological affiliation of the consonants in between [ ǰ u] and the other number. Arranging the morphologically complex words in columns, as shown in (2), a pattern emerges which suggests the location of the morpheme boundary. (2) Words containing the morpheme ‘10’ ǰ u ‘10’ ǰ u ŋ a 10- 5’ (‘15’) ǰ ug ǰ ig 10- 1’ (‘11’) ǰ u bši 10- 4’ (‘14’) ǰ urgu 10- 9’ (‘19’) gub ǰ u ‘9 - 10’ (‘90’) š ib ǰ u ‘4 -1 0’ (‘40’) ŋ ab ǰ u ‘5 - 10’ (‘50’) As mentioned above , the morpheme ‘10’ minimally contains the sequence [ ǰ u]. A following consonant appears when [ ǰ u] precedes another morpheme, but the consonant is unpredictable ([
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