1a
Planck showed that his formula, which describes experimental data well, is obtained if
the energy of electromagnetic radiation is not a continuum but takes on discrete allowed
values,
E
=
nhf
, for integer
n
. The implication is that energy of light is quantized.
1b
Light is comparised of energy packets, each with energy
E
=
hf
where
f
is the frequency
of light. The intensity is determined by the number of photons. Classically, light is
understood as the electromagnetic wave; the energy is given by the amplitude of the
wave and not dependent on the frequency.
1c
In de Broglie’s theory, the equation is read as
f
=
E/h
— given the energy of a particle
E
, the equation gives the
frequency
of the particle. de Broglie’s theory is a signiﬁcant
extension over Einsten’s theory because it postulates that all forms of matter, i.e., parti
cles with mass
m
6
= 0, have wave as well as particle properties.
2a
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 Spring '10
 SINHA
 Energy, Photon, Light, Fundamental physics concepts

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