Ant_102_Lecture_04_2011 - What we have covered so far.....

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Unformatted text preview: What we have covered so far.. Lecture 1. Intentional vs. Non- intentional Lecture 2. Referential vs. Non- referential Lecture 3. Human vs. Non-human primates Lecture 4. The role of INFERENCE in communication Review from last time Phylogenetic vs. Ontogenetic ritualization T 1 T 2 T 3 Action 1 Action 2 Action 3 e.g. Approach Raise Climb on Mom arm Mom’s back Action sequences T 1 T 2 T 3 Action 1 Action 2 Action 3 e.g. Approach Raise Climb on Mom arm Mom’s back Action sequences After repeated occasions, Mom comes to recognize this as the beginning of the sequence. T 1 T 2 T 3 Action 1 Action 2 Action 3 e.g. Approach Raise Climb on Mom arm Mom’s back Action sequences Once mom can anticipate where this is going on the basis of the raised arm, infant can “anticipate the anticipation” - voila , a gesture. T 1 T 2 Action 1 Action 2 e.g. Wolf bares Wolf teeth bites Action sequences T 1 T 2 Action 1 Action 2 e.g. Wolf bares Wolf teeth bites Action sequences “wolves who conspicuously prepare for biting by baring their teeth and growling have an adaptive advantage , as do wolves who respond to this preparatory behavior by withdrawing before the actual biting comes. Over evolutionary time , this results in the genetic Fxation of intention-movement displays performed invariably in speciFc emotional and/or social circumstances.” Phylogenetic ritualization: Adaptations by a species. e.g. wolves baring teeth “wolves who conspicuously prepare for biting by baring their teeth and growling have an adaptive advantage , as do wolves who respond to this preparatory behavior by withdrawing before the actual biting comes. Over evolutionary time , this results in the genetic Fxation of intention-movement displays performed invariably in speciFc emotional and/or social circumstances.” Ontogenetic ritualization: Are learned by an individual. E.g. Chimp arm-raise (i) initially one youngster approaches another to play, raises arm in preparation to play-hit the other, and then actually hits, jumps on, and begins playing; (ii) over repeated instances, the recipient learns to anticipate this sequence on the basis of the initial arm-raise alone, and so begins to play upon perceiving this initial step; and (iii) the communicator eventually learns to anticipate this anticipation , and so raises his arm, monitors the recipient, and waits for her to react—expecting this arm raise to initiate the play. Ontogenetic ritualization Phylogenetic ritualization Imitation Are alternate accounts of how it is that a given individual comes to behave in a particular way. Ontogenetic ritualization Imitation Are alternative theories of learning. Apes don’t “ape” - Evidence against imitation account: • when different captive groups are compared, there are no systematic group differences, but many individual differences within both groups; • individuals in natural social groups acquire gestures they have had little or no opportunity to observe and there are some idiosyncratic gestures used only by...
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course ANTHROPOLO 102 taught by Professor Dr.andreamuehelbach during the Fall '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Ant_102_Lecture_04_2011 - What we have covered so far.....

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