Emotions Powerpoint - EMOTIONS WHAT IS AN EMOTION? William...

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E MOTIONS
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W HAT IS AN E MOTION ? William James (1884)
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U NCLEAR ! Many answers—though no real consensus and numerous issues with the answers
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B ASIC P ROPERTIES OF E MOTIONS Brief Specific Cause Signaled through face, touch, voice Helps achieve goals
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T YPES OF E MOTIONS Primary appraisal : first basic judgment of whether an event is good or bad for the person If good, approach (the positive emotions) If bad, avoid (the negative emotions)
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W HAT A BOUT S PECIFIC E MOTIONS ? Paul Ekman Founding figure in the study of emotions Brought an evolutionary perspective to emotions (heavily inspired by Darwin) Studied universality of basic emotion expression
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E KMAN S B ASIC E MOTIONS
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D ECODING B ASIC E MOTIONS Ekman traveled to Papua New Guinea Showed the Fore (tribe from highlands) six basic faces High rates of identifying corresponding emotion
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I SSUES ? Book covers criticisms (and responses) of study design What about the specific emotions? What are the issues there?
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I SSUES WITH E KMAN B ASIC E MOTIONS Only 1 positive emotion? Are these really the emotions people see as basic? What are the properties of these emotions?
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A NOTHER A PPROACH TO THE Q UESTION OF B ASIC E MOTIONS Prototype approach to emotions Prototypes and Categorization Categories that don’t have clear boundaries ; rather, examples are either better or worse representations of the prototype of the overall category
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P ROTOTYPES OF E MOTIONS Shaver and colleagues had people rate over 200 emotion words 1 = I would never call this an emotion 4 = I would definitely call this an emotion Examples : anger, hate, fear, love, rage, joy, gladness, regret, pride, ferocity, alarm, eagerness, power, aversion, forgiveness, discomfort, rejection, rapture, isolation, uneasiness Through this approach, aimed to evaluate which emotion terms are most prototypically emotions to laypeople
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P REDICTIONS ABOUT MOST PROTOTYPICAL E MOTIONS ?
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M OST P ROTOTYPICAL E MOTIONS Emotion Term Mean Rating Love 3.94 Anger 3.90 Hate 3.84 Depression 3.83 Fear 3.83 Jealousy 3.81 Happiness 3.77 Passion 3.75 Affection 3.72 Sadness 3.68 Grief 3.65 Rage 3.64
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W HAT A BOUT B ASIC E MOTIONS ? Shaver and colleagues then selected the 135 most prototypic emotion terms Put each term on a separate index card Gave all 135 cards to new participants Asked them to put emotion terms that “go together” —make as few or as many piles they like
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Ekman’s Emotions Prototype Emotions Joy Joy Sadness Sadness Anger Anger Fear Fear Surprise Surprise Disgust Love
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A PPROACHES TO E MOTIONS Ekman and Prototype approaches are discrete approaches to emotions Love Joy Fear Anger There are also dimensional approaches to emotions
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ISCRETE A PPROACHES Provides insights into how specific emotions differ Specific emotions as a response to specific situations Problem with discrete approaches? Little to say about
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 220 taught by Professor Plaks during the Fall '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Emotions Powerpoint - EMOTIONS WHAT IS AN EMOTION? William...

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