Bio153_lecture14_Protostomes_sv

Bio153_lecture14_Protostomes_sv - Protostome Animals What...

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Protostome Animals What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Protostomes? abundant in aquatic and terrestrial environments • had to make the transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments • transition was made independently in arthropods, molluscs, roundworms, annelids Prominent theme: repeated water-to-land transitions What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Protostomes? water-to-land transitions • already had : - hydroststic skeletons - exoskeletons - appendages Water to Land Transition Phylogenetic analyses supports hypotheses that ancestors of terrestrial lineages were aquatic 2 new challenges: 1. exchanging gases 2. avoid drying out Water to Land Transition • Gas exchange with the environment • Preventing gas-exchange surfaces from drying out • Watertight exoskeleton • Respiratory structures • Ability to move Water to Land Transition Why is it important? • 450mya – plants moved onto land • 365mya – vertebrates move onto land • Thus protostomes had a long time to diversify on land
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Adaptations for Feeding • diversity of feeding strategies - suspension feeders, fluid feeders, deposit feeders, food mass feeders - predators, parasites exploitation of diverse foods correlates with a wide diversity of mouthparts Diversity of Arthropod Feeding Structures Wolf spider: appendages used to capture/hold prey Diversity of Arthropod Feeding Structures Leaf-cut er ants cut leaves. Deer ticks pierce mammalian skin. Nut weevils bore into hard fruit. Adaptations for Moving • Variation in movement depends on: (1) presence or absence of limbs (2) type of skeleton Adaptations for Moving Worm-like protostomes: • hydrostatic skeletons • caterpillars, grubs, maggots, insect larvae • adults of above species may have exoskeletons and limbs Adaptations for Moving 1. Jointed limbs :
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Adaptations for Flight 2. wings One of the most important adaptations…. . Adaptations for Movement in Molluscs
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Bio153_lecture14_Protostomes_sv - Protostome Animals What...

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