cluny Starts because of Byzantine treaties with Muslims – Western Christians are suspicious of Byzantines, Eastern Christians are suspicious of Western Christians because they don't understand concept of holy war. Successively over throw Umayyad—Start new period. Abbasid dynasty -- they were Sunni—Al ied themselves with Shi te to execute Abu Muslim—To be ligit – needed to appear to masses Abbasids al y with Shi’ite grassroots movements in Iran and Iraq—plans to kil Abu Muslim to end rebel ious threat Abu Bkr Earliest companion of Muhammad and his father in law—Elected as first Calipha (Deputy to the Prophet)—Responsibility: Keep together the umma Persian convert—Built movement against Arab Muslim Umayyad Ali (656-661) 4th Khalifa. Step-Son of Muhammad—Moved center of power to Iran—Chal enged by Mu’awiya—Significant – his fol owers became shi te of Ali Cal ed "Al at". Most powerful deity (like Zeus) Amsars Arab garrison towns populated by Muslim elites—Became centers of commerce, culture, and learning—Why maintain this segregation? -To maintain separation of war spoils (Exclusive to the elites) Angel Gabriel He is the angel on Mt. Heira that tel s Muhammad to “recite” Ansars Medinans who supported Muhammad and most responsible for his success Arab Muslims Lived in the luxurious amsars—Given special privileges because of tribal pedigree Baghdad as capital After Abbasid victory it became the capital of the Abbasid empire. Symbolic center for Arab empire and Islamic world. —Cut revenue/ productivity of land owners so many peasants (exchanged labor for wages). Baybars Original y a Turk who became a Mongol slave. Seen as defected due to an eye defect. Sold and sent to mamluk barracks in Cairo, he moved up in rank and became a great warrior and commander who helped crush the crusaders in 1250. He became Sultan of Egypt after previous Sultan was assassinated. Nomadic Arabs in central region of Arabia Peninsula. Sheep and camel herders; fiercely independent; valued bravery and group loyalty; Emphasis on tribal identity and communal property. Decision-making through consensus. Black Death The Disease first broke out in step of central Asia ( from flees on marmot rodents)—It spread through trade routes Blood libel myth about Jews that in part justified their persecution – myth said that Jews hunt young Christian children to kil them and drink their blood or use their blood in religious ritual or ceremony. A novel written by Giovanni Boccaccio about the black Death Bureaucracy Entire Government is located within the Palace Caliph Elected political leaders of Islam, but not necessarily the religious leader-Become figurehead with symbolic power Caravel Portuguese ships used to travel on their crusades—Had Lateen Sails (triangular sails on the caravels that help the ships travel faster—technology from the world of Islam that Iberians) Christianity was permanently divided after the Crusades into Eastern Orthodox Christian Church and [Western/Latin] Roman Catholic Church. More rights and protection for women — Widow rights were greatly expanded — Did not tolerate husbands who beat
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