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Unformatted text preview: Art History 1441 Final Exam Notes 3/31/11 Neoclassical Painting and Architecture Thomas Jefferson- Virginia State Capitol (Richmond), 1785-89 o Amateur architect o Architecture related to Romantic period o Classical elements o Pure, white, no Rococo mixture of materials, no mixture of colors or curves o Moral rectitude, linear o Central section is original, and two on the side were later added o Horizontal structure o Simple and based on Maison Carree, an ancient Roman temple in France o Less ornamental, unfluted shafts, proportional of building as a whole is broad o Main point is that, “we are all Republicans,” to show authority, etc. o Spent most of his time in Paris, but went to Southern France o Building is raised up off the ground on a platform o Similar sense of accuracy, more of a Roman architecture with the free standing columns in front porch o The side of the building however is made with pilasters and windows thus it is distinctively different from Roman architecture o Point of relevance in modern world by using the classical elements o Capitolium hill in Rome, place where government made interactions, thus these buildings are called Capitol, where governor does legislation stuff- The White House, Washington o Roman neo-classical style Neo-Gothic Architecture Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin- British Houses of Parliament (London), begun 1836- In England, the Gothic was held to be a morally superior style of architecture, for, unlike the “foreign” and “pagan” styles of ancient Greece and Rome, it was viewed as being both British and Christian- Period of beginning of modern architectural history- Famous Gothic buildings in England, Westminster Abbey – real gothic buildings- Huge building- Barry was essentially responsible for the overall design while Pugin was interior designer- Canterbury Cathedral (English Gothic) ~ 1400s o Square, pointy tower Charles Garnier- The Opera (Paris Opera House), 1861-74- Example of “eclectic” architecture- Less pure, mixing and matching styles- New, no building in past like this but some elements taken from the past- Sculptures are very animated- General aspect of building is similar to the Louvre in 16 th century- Open arches on bottom are similar, but the 17 th century Louvre east section looks like the building with the double fluted columns- Upper story of Paris Opera House is similar to lower story of Borromini’s church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane with the columns Some Factors Determining New Directions in Architecture 1.) New materials: iron, steel, plate glass, concrete, etc 2.) New technologies: machine-made elements, standardization and prefabrication of parts, cheap and easy transportation, etc 3.) New types of buildings for which the past provided no models: apartment houses, department stores, office buildings, etc 4.) Utilitarian structures that did not require special architectural design: factories, warehouses, railroad stations, bridges, etc Joseph Paxton- Crystal Palace (formerly Hyde Park, London), 1851...
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