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Chapter 2 - Chapter Two Classical Approaches Machine...

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Chapter Two - Classical Approaches Machine Metaphor The guiding metaphor for classical approaches. Proponents of this metaphor argue that organizations are like machines because of the principles of specialization : each part of machine[each person of organization] has specialized task standardization : machines use similar parts[organizations use similar workers] replaceability : similar parts[workers] can be easily replaced predictability : machine built[organization runs] according to specific rules and standards, can be fixed by looking at how these are being applied and misapplied Not applicable to todays organizations. Major Classical Theories the Theory of Classical Management (Fayol), the Theory of Bureaucracy (Weber), and the Theory of Scientific Management (Taylor). Theory of Classical Management (Fayol) Fayol is considered to be the father of operational management theory. The core of his work helps to divide organizations into functional units via: 5 Elements of management (what managers should do) and, 1. Planning : Looking ahead to determine the best way to achieve organizational goals. 2. Organizing : Arranging and evaluating human resources. 3. Command : Setting out employee tasks to meet organizational goals.
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