Chapter 3 - Chapter Three Human Relations and Human...

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Chapter Three – Human Relations and Human Resources Approaches The Human Relations Approach (family metaphor) The Hawthorn Studies Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGregor’s Theory X and Y The Hawthorn Studies A series of research investigations in the late 1920s and early 1930s that served as a springboard to the human relations movement. Interested in how changes in the work environment would impact worker productivity. Studies included 4 phases : 1. the illumination studies : were designed to determine the influence of lighting level on worker productivity. Found no significant difference in productivity. 2. the relay assembly test room studies : Introduced a number of changes. Found that social satisfaction was more influential on productivity than physical or economic factors. 3. the interview program : conducted interviews with thousands of workers. Found problems in worker-management cooperation were because of the emotionally based attitudes of the workers. 4. the bank wiring room studies : observation saw that people develop norms for the “proper” level of productivity and that they pressure each other to stick to them. Found that the social group's influence on worker behaviour exceeded that of the organizational power structure. Hawthorne effect - Mere attention to individuals causes changes in behavior. This helped to bring attention to social factors , management style , s atisfaction of human needs , that influence performance.
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Chapter 3 - Chapter Three Human Relations and Human...

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