Lecture 5 PowerPoint

Lecture 5 PowerPoint - POL 2156B FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH...

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POL 2156B FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH FROM CONCEPTS TO MEASURES
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LECTURE PLAN Operationalization: from concepts to indicators Levels of Measurement Validity Reliability Indexes and Scales
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CONCEPTS VS. INDICATORS Concepts are abstract, They are the words we use to describe attributes Indicators are the kinds of concrete empirical observations we make to measure the occurrence of an attribute or behaviour. They are the real-world representations of variables.
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OPERATIONALIZATION CONCEPTS Define what you want to study VARIABLES Select the variables INDICATORS Identify evidence that tells you about the variables MEASUREMENT Assign values to indicators
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DEMOCRACY: DEFINING THE CONCEPT “Institutionalized Democracy: Democracy is conceived as three essential, interdependent elements.One is the presence of institutions and procedures through which citizens can express effective preferences about alternative policies and leaders. Second is the existence of institutionalized constraints on the exercise of power by the executive. Third is the guarantee of civil liberties to all citizens in their daily lives and in acts of political participation. A mature and internally coherent democracy, for example, might be operationally defined as one in which (a) political participation is unrestricted, open, and fully competitive; (b) executive recruitment is elective, and (c) constraints on the chief executive are substantial.” Polity IV Codebook ( www.systemicpeace.org/polity )
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DEMOCRACY: SELECTING (LOTS OF ) INDICATORS “The Democracy indicator is an additive eleven-point scale (0-10). The operational indicator of democracy is derived from codings of the competitiveness of political participation (variable 2.6), the openness and competitiveness of executive recruitment (variables 2.3 and 2.2), and constraints on the chief executive (variable 2.4) using the following weights: Competitiveness of Executive Recruitment (XRCOMP): - Election +2 -Transitional +1 Openness of Executive Recruitment (XROPEN): (only if XRCOMP is Election or Transitional) -Dual/election +1 -Election +1
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DEMOCRACY: SELECTING (LOTS OF ) INDICATORS Constraint on Chief Executive (XCONST): -Executive parity or subordination +4 -Intermediate category +3 -Substantial limitations +2 -Intermediate category +1 Competitiveness of Political Participation (PARCOMP): -Competitive +3 -Transitional +2 -Factional +1” Source: Polity IV Codebook ( www.systemicpeace.org/polity )
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A CLOSER LOOK “3.2 XRCOMP Competitiveness of Executive Recruitment: Competitiveness refers to the extent that prevailing modes of advancement give subordinates equal opportunities to become superordinates…Three categories are used to measure this concept: (1) Selection: Chief executives are determined by hereditary succession, designation, or by a combination of both, as in monarchies whose chief minister is chosen by king or court. Examples of pure designative
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Lecture 5 PowerPoint - POL 2156B FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH...

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