Chapter 2 Handouts-1

Chapter 2 Handouts-1 - Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Law of...

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Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements
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Law of Conservation of Mass total mass of reactants = total mass of products 1 Because only whole atoms combine and atoms are not changed or destroyed in the process, the mass of sodium chloride made must equal the total mass of sodium and chlorine atoms that combine together
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Law of Definite Proportions All samples of a compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements A 100.0 g sample of sodium chloride contains 39.3 g of sodium and 60.7 g of chlorine A 200.0 g sample of sodium chloride contains 78.6 g of sodium and 121.4 g of chlorine
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Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements form two different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 g of A can be expressed as a ratio of small, whole numbers CO CO 2
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Dalton s Atomic Theory Dalton proposed a theory of matter based on it having ultimate, indivisible particles to explain the Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions 1. 2. All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from atoms of other element 3. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form molecules of compounds 4. In a chemical reaction, atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element
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± 9 ² : ³´ 9 ± : + Law of Conservation of Mass
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J.J. Thomson Believed that the cathode ray was composed of tiny particles with an electrical charge
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Millikan s Oil Drop Experiment
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A New Theory of the Atom Because the atom is no longer indivisible, Thomson must propose a new model of the atom to replace the first statement in Dalton s Atomic Theory rest of Dalton s theory still valid at this point Thomson proposes that instead of being a hard, marble-like unbreakable sphere, the way Dalton described it, the atom actually had an inner structure
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course CHEM 105 taught by Professor Woodrum during the Fall '08 term at Kentucky.

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Chapter 2 Handouts-1 - Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Law of...

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