Chapter 3 Handouts

Chapter 3 Handouts - Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and...

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Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations
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Elements and Compounds Elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds
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Chemical Bonds Compounds are made of atoms held together by bonds Chemical bonds The bonding attraction comes from attractions between protons and electrons
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Bond Types Two general types of bonding between atoms found in compounds, ionic and covalent Ionic bonds ! generally found when metal atoms bond to nonmetal atoms Covalent bonds ! generally found when nonmetal atoms bond together
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ionic compounds the formula is always the same as the empirical formula the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero The ionic compound NaCl
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Formula of Ionic Compounds Al 2 O 3 CaBr 2 Na 2 CO 3
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Practice — What are the formulas for compounds made from the following ions? K + with N 3 ! Ca 2+ with Br ! Al 3+ with S 2 !
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Formulas Describe Compounds
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A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance An empirical formula molecular empirical
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Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
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Molecular Elements
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Ionic vs. Molecular Compounds Propane – contains individual C 3 H 8 molecules made of covalent bonds Table salt – contains an array of Na + ions and Cl - ions made of ionic bonds
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Classify Each of the Following as Either an Atomic Element, Molecular Element, Molecular Compound, or Ionic Compound Aluminum, Al Aluminum chloride, AlCl 3 Chlorine, Cl 2 Acetone, C 3 H 6 O Carbon monoxide, CO Cobalt, Co
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Naming Compounds Specific rules allow for systematic naming of materials to avoid confusion gypsum CaSO 4 • 2H 2 O
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Naming Monatomic Nonmetal Anion Determine the charge from position on the Periodic Table
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Chemical Nomenclature Ionic Compounds ! often a metal + nonmetal ! anion (nonmetal), add “ide” to element name SrCl 2 CaO KMnO 4 NH 4 Br
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Chapter 3 Handouts - Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and...

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