Chapter 6 Handout

Chapter 6 Handout - Chapter 6 Thermochemistry Nature of...

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Chapter 6 ! Thermochemistry
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Nature of Energy Energy is the capacity to do work Radiant energy comes from the sun and is earth’s primary energy source Thermal energy Chemical energy is the energy stored within the bonds of chemical substances Nuclear energy is the energy stored within the collection of neutrons and protons in the atom Potential energy
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Classification of Energy Kinetic energy Thermal energy is the energy associated with temperature ! thermal energy is a form of kinetic energy
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Conservation of Energy The Law of Conservation of Energy When energy is transferred between objects, or converted from one form to another, the total amount of energy present at the beginning must be present at the end
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Thermochemistry is the study of heat change in chemical reactions. The system Exchange:
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• The amount of kinetic energy an object has is directly proportional to its mass and velocity ! KE = ! mv 2 Units of Energy
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Energy Flow and Conservation of Energy Conservation of energy requires that the sum of the energy changes in the system and the surroundings must be zero ! ! Energy universe = ! ! Is the symbol that is used to mean change " final amount – initial amount
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State Function State functions are properties that are determined by the state of the system, regardless of how that condition was achieved. The magnitude of the change depends ONLY on the intial and finals states of the system. Potential energy of hiker 1 and hiker 2 is the same even though they took different paths.
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Energy Diagrams Energy diagrams graphically show the direction of energy flow Internal Energy initial final initial final If energy enters the system, it will be positive (+) If energy leaves the system, it will be negative ( " )
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First law of thermodynamics – energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. ! E system + E surroundings = 0 or C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O Exothermic chemical reaction! Chemical energy lost by combustion = Energy gained by the surroundings
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Energy Exchange Energy is exchanged between the system and surroundings through heat and work ! q = heat (thermal) energy ! w = work energy ! q and w are NOT state functions, their value depends on the process ! E = q + w
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Chapter 6 Handout - Chapter 6 Thermochemistry Nature of...

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