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Unformatted text preview: 190 Rosilyne M. Borland 7 10 Rosilyne M. Borland recently completed a Master of Arts at the School of International Service, American University (email@example.com). C OMPLEX E MERGENCIES AND H UMAN D EVELOPMENT : A Q UANTITATIVE A NALYSIS OF T HEIR R ELATIONSHIP Rosilyne M. Borland Increasingly, the worlds poorest and most marginalized are also those most affected by armed conFict. The complicated interactions among modern conFicts, poverty, hunger, and dis- ease have led to the emergence of the notion of the complex emergency. The widespread occurrence of complex emergen- cies in the worlds poorest countries, where development ef- forts are the most needed, has grave consequences for human development. Through an application of quantitative methods, this paper examines the relationship between complex emer- gencies and development using the human development index developed by the United Nations Development Programme and the typology of complex emergencies developed by the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research. The study demonstrates a relationship between levels of development and types of complex emergen- cies and suggests that an index which considers the multiple manifestations of complex emergencies would provide a bet- ter measurement than a single quantier. These results point to the need to situate development efforts in the context of complex emergencies in order for them to meet the needs of the worlds most vulnerable populations. Journal of Public and International Affairs, Volume 15/Spring 2004 Copyright 2004, the Trustees of Princeton University http://www.princeton.edu/~jpia 191 Complex Emergencies and Human Development: A Quantitative Analysis of Their Relationship The challenges faced by those who work in the Feld of international development might be greater now than ever before. In many of the worlds countries, a combination of violence and poverty is contributing to extensive human suffering. The World Bank estimates that more than half of all low-income countries have experienced signiFcant conict since 1990, with devastating effects on their potential for sustainable de- velopment and an improved quality of life (World Bank 2002, 153). Many authors have noted the link between conict and underdevelopment (see Stewart 2000), particularly in the case of internal conicts, which have become the most common type of war in the world today (Kumar 2001; Anderson 1999). According to the Organization for Economic Coopera- tion and Development (OECD), 95 percent of the casualties in civil wars are civilians (Kumar 2001, 6). Distinctly different from the wars of the past, most of these conicts are fought between identity groups divided by ethnicity, language, culture, race, religion, or regional roots (Maynard 1999, 6). These wars often involve tactics such as mutilation and rape as part of a deliberate strategy to demoralize communities and destroy their social structures (WHO 2002, 22). Those who are not killed are often social structures (WHO 2002, 22)....
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