v16_2005c - 26 Aaron D. Levine 2 A CASE FOR...

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26 Aaron D. Levine 7 2 Aaron D. Levine is a Ph.D. candidate in Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University (adlevine@princeton.edu). A C ASE FOR G OVERNMENT - S PONSORED M ONITORING OF P REIMPLANTATION G ENETIC D IAGNOSIS IN THE U NITED S TATES Aaron D. Levine Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a modifed version oF in vitro Fertilization in which individual embryos are screened For specifc genetic characteristics prior to implantation, provides a powerFul way For parents suFFering From inFertility to increase their chances oF having healthy children. In its various Forms, PGD allows parents to screen For gender, providing a means For avoiding X-linked diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, such as translocations and aneuploidies, and single-gene disorders. Beyond these standard uses, PGD could potentially be used to select For any genetic trait, and this aspect oF the technology has raised concerns that it may be used either intentionally or unintentionally For eugenic purposes. At present, reproductive medicine is only loosely regulated in the United States and new technologies, such as PGD, are almost entirely unregulated. This paper argues that given the lack oF consensus regarding the ethical acceptability oF PGD and embryo selection techniques, the government has an interest in gathering and reporting data on the use oF PGD in the United States. Taking a proactive role now, rather than allowing the use oF PGD to continue growing unscrutinized, will give society the chance to make thoughtFul and deliberate decisions about its use. 1
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27 A Case for Government-Sponsored Monitoring of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in the United States I NTRODUCTION The ethics of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been the subject of public debate at least since the late 1970s, when in vitro fertilization (IVF) revolutionized the ±eld. Although today IVF is almost universally accepted as a means to help parents suffering from various forms of infer- tility to reproduce, newer forms of ART continue to generate widespread controversy. This paper focuses on the technology of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a variant of IVF in which embryos are selected for implantation based on speci±c genetic characteristics of interest. ART, including PGD, are loosely regulated in the United States, in keeping with the tradition of reproductive freedom. This article argues that, given the ethical debate currently surrounding PGD and other embryo selection techniques, the government has an interest in at least minimal regulation of PGD for the purpose of monitoring its use. A minor modi±cation to the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certi±cation Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) is likely to be the most politically expedient way to introduce this neces- sary regulation. This paper is divided into three sections. The ±rst part reviews the ±eld
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v16_2005c - 26 Aaron D. Levine 2 A CASE FOR...

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