06 Ch01 - The Science and Engineering of Materials, 5 th ed...

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Unformatted text preview: The Science and Engineering of Materials, 5 th ed Donald R. Askeland Pradeep P. Phul Chapter 1 Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering 1 Objectives of Chapter 1 Introduce the field of materials science and engineering (MSE) Provide introduction to the classification of materials 2 Outline 1.1 What is Materials Science and Engineering? 1.2 Classification of Materials 1.3 Functional Classification of Materials 1.4 Classification of Materials Based on Structure 1.5 Environmental and Other Effects 1.6 Materials Design and Selection 3 What is Materials Science and Engineering? Materials Science and Engineering Materials Science emphasis on relationships between synthesis and processing, structure and properties Materials Engineering emphasis on transforming materials into useful devices or structures Composition means the chemical make-up of a material. Structure means a description of the arrangements of atoms or ions in a material. Synthesis is the process by which materials are made from naturally occurring or other chemicals. Processing means different ways for shaping materials into useful components or changing their properties. Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-4 5 Classification of Materials Metals and Alloys Ceramics, Glasses,and Glass-ceramics Polymers (plastics), Thermoplastics and Thermosets Semiconductors Composite Materials Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-6 Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-7 8 Functional Classification of Materials Aerospace Biomedical Electronic Materials Energy Technology and Environmental Technology Magnetic Materials Photonic or Optical Materials Smart Materials Structural Materials Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-9 10 Section 1.4 Classification of Materials-Based on Structure Crystalline material is a material comprised of one or many crystals. In each crystal, atoms or ions show a long-range periodic arrangement. Single crystal is a crystalline material that is made of only one crystal (there are no grain boundaries). Grains are the crystals in a polycrystalline material. Polycrystalline material is a material comprised of many crystals (as opposed to a single-crystal material that has only one crystal). Grain boundaries are regions between grains of a polycrystalline material. 11 Section 1.5 Environmental and Other Effects Effects of following factors must be accounted for in design to ensure that components do not fail unexpectedly: Temperature Corrosion Fatigue Strain Rate Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-12 Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-13 Copyright 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited 1-14 15 Materials Design and Selection Density is mass per unit volume of a material,...
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06 Ch01 - The Science and Engineering of Materials, 5 th ed...

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