03.23.09.War.Other

03.23.09.War.Other - GREEK AND ROMAN RELIGIONS 03.23.09: J...

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GREEK AND ROMAN RELIGIONS 03.23.09: J ust War, Accepting the Other
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“Finally, there will be a fourth kingdom, strong as iron—for iron breaks and smashes everything— and as iron breaks things to pieces, so it will crush and break all others.” (Daniel 2:39, NIV) (A prophecy of Daniel from the Old Testament that some commentators constantly try to identify with Rome. The Romans certainly didn’t apply it to themselves – though they’dve probably liked the “breaking things to pieces” bit.) War
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War, Agriculture and Mars Mars was originally very much a god of agriculture who was syncretized with Ares, the god of war. In the archaic period, war and agriculture were intimately connected in their cycles: spring (go to war), fall (end war, come back to harvest), winter (don’t starve), spring (back to it) Festivals to Mars reflect this
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Mars on the Calendar Feb. 27 and Mar. 14 – Equirria were held (horse races on the Campus Martius, also scapegoat driven out) Mar. 23 – Tubilustrum (purification of the war trumpets) Oct. 15 – Race run with October Horse. Off- horse of the winning team was killed, residents of Suburra and the Via Sacra fought over the head. Oct. 19 – Armilustrum (weapons purified for winter storage)
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Fetial Priests Priests who oversaw treaties and the declaration of war. Three stages to ensure that was a war was just (‘ bellum iustum ’), RR , pp. 71-2 (1) Seeking compensation (2) Calling gods to witness (3) Declaration of war
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Hurling the Spear Upon declaration of war, the Fetial would toss a spear on to enemy territory. Posed a very real problem when Rome started fighting enemies that were further away. Worked around it when Augustus revived the procedure by saying the land around the temple of Bellona (goddess of war) was “enemy land” By the mid-Republic, most of the details of carrying out negotiations and treaties were in the hands of legates ( legati ) and ambassadors appointed by the Senate
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Temple of J anus Supposedly founded by one of the kings, Numa Doors were open in time of war, shut in times of peace. During the Republic, only closed once, after the First Punic War, in 235 BCE Closed in 29 BCE by Augustus after his victory over Marc Antony (and more importantly for his propaganda, Cleopatra) Three more times during his principate ( princeps = Latin term for “emperor”)
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The Temple of J anus (Unfortunately, we don’t have many remains of it…) Our best depictions are on coins… One view from CoinArchives.com Another Both are coin issues of the emperor Nero prior to the outbreak of war in the East with the J ewish revolt in 66 CE
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2012 for the course 190 326 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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03.23.09.War.Other - GREEK AND ROMAN RELIGIONS 03.23.09: J...

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