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04. Thermodynamics II (with rules) and Genomics

04. Thermodynamics II (with rules) and Genomics -...

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1 Thermodynamics of Living Systems II: Bioenergetics, Metabolism, and Order 1. University Expectations HW and thermodynamics HW – download from “GAE assignments” link in course menu in class website – due Friday 2/4 2. Pre-class attitude survey and diagnostic exam due today! Thermodynamics GAE (Group Active Engagement) Homework – Study group discussion (sometime Monday-Wednesday), and individual writing (after that discussion and due Friday 2/4) Developing skills Conceptual models for major principles In-class group activities Group homework Group dynamics Biological energy flow; thermodynamic laws Flow diagramming; brainstorming Apply for solving problems Learning objectives: 1) To assemble prior knowledge in order to construct flow diagrams of energy flow through biological systems; 2) To identify the fundamental rules governing biological E flow; 3) To translate those rules into the formalism of thermodynamics; 4) To apply thermodynamics equations for describing biological processes in class discussions and on group homework 1) Energy flows into the biological world in the form of light, does physical and chemical work, and ultimately leaves as heat. 2) Matter is ultimately recycled in the biological world. Biological energy flow – General features 1) Organisms do not create energy, they transform it. 2) Global – Light energy flowing into the biological world is ultimately equal to heat energy leaving it. 3) Each step – the energy of the initial conditions is equal to the energy of the final conditions. Biological energy flow – Energy balance rules
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2 1) Light is highly usable energy as it can do biological work. 2) Heat is unusable energy in biological systems. 3) Global: energy flows in the biological world in the direction of usable to unusable forms. 4) Each step: energy flows in the direction of usable to unusable forms. 5) Energy is not equivalent to biological work! Biological energy flow – Reaction direction rules Biological energy flows in organisms Joe the Physicist says, “Thermodynamics specifies the rules for converting energy and molecules available in the environment into useful forms for sustaining life.” Energy balance rules = First Law of Thermodynamics Reaction direction rules = Second Law of Thermodynamics Genomes - store the “solutions” (i.e., molecular mechanisms) that different lineages have evolved to harness thermodynamic laws. Quantitative aspects of thermodynamic laws Joe the Physicist says: “The physics is actually quite easy, but it takes some effort to figure out that it’s easy.” Δ refers to difference between final state and initial state of a process First Law H refers to enthapy (total energy) H = 0 (in the universe ) “Total energy in the universe is neither created nor destroyed in any process, but it can be transformed from one form to another.” OR “Total energy of the initial state of a biological process is equal to the total energy of its final state.” Quantitative aspects of thermodynamic laws Second Law H = G + T S
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