24DevelopmentSpr11post

24DevelopmentSpr11post - Development - Introduction...

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1 Development - Introduction Historical Context Embryology has a very long history in Biology Ancient interest Developed as a distinct discipline in late 18th, early 19th century Viewed as important for understanding evolution in the late 19th century, but evolutionary focus shifted to genes in populations with the rise of genetics for most of 20th century Lots of classic embryological experiments in the early 20th century, but difficult to understand in terms of genes Evolutionary Developmental Biology (“EvoDevo”) now a vigorous area of research, motivated in particular by: Better understanding of the _______ basis for developmental processes Incorporation of phylogenetic information Outline 1) Overview of some classic developmental concepts and experiments 2) Consideration of the genetic basis for some of these results 3) Interpretation in light of phylogeny (brief but important) Are there general principles that emerge from this synthesis? “ … if the mystery that surrounds embryology is ever to come within our comprehension, we must …have recourse to other means than the description of the passing show.” T.H. Morgan 1927 www.ngm.com/0611/feature4/ Development - General Question How do you get from an ________________ single cell to a complex organism? E.g. heads vs. tails, A/P location on body, individuation of serially homologous structures Most information comes from a few _________ systems C. elegans , Drosophila , zebrafish, chick, mouse Broad enough that some general principles emerge, at least for Bilateria (sorry about the plants, Todd)
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2 Some General Observations The fertilized egg is __________ Can form any cell type ___________ is typically lost in animal development Become _________, then differentiated Reversible in some cases, even in mammals (e.g. Dolly) Usually retain the ___________________, just reduce the range of __________ they express Some cells, e.g. adult stem cells, retain ________potency Embryonic stem cells have a great range of potency,
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24DevelopmentSpr11post - Development - Introduction...

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