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evolutionAndContinuingCreation.otl - Evolution's Challenge...

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Evolution's Challenge to Christianity 1. 1) Biblical Literalism 1. 2) Design 2. 3) Status of humanity 3. 4) Evolutionary ethics and social Darwinism 2. Evolutionary Theory 1. "The Modern Synthesis": 1. Coined by 1. Julian Huxlet 2. Proponents 1. Ernst Mayr, Gaylord Simpson 3. Filled in the gaps of Darwin 4. Genetics + Evolutionary theory 5. Population Genetics 1. Mendel's Laws of Mutation 2. Mutations 1. Support: molecular structure of proteins 1. # of differences == evolutionary distance 3. Recombination 4. Large emphasis on natural selection (primary selective force) 5. New emphasis on cooperation and competition 1. eg Leaf cutter ants 6. Kinda Lamarck (C. H. Waddington): Organisms can adapt their behavior, and those with structure that best fits the new behavior (such as a new method of fishing) will perpetuate. New behavior can ultimately lead to new forms 2. Current Debates 1. Punctuated Equilibrium 1. Proponents: 1. Stephen Jay Gould 2. Niles Eldredge 2. Basic idea Long periods of stasis, followed by bursts of rapid speciation. On a smaller level, genetic drift due to sudden geographic isolation is an example 3. Eg: Cambrian Explosion 2. Nonadaptive Changes 1. Determinental: too large antlers for elk 2. Mutations not purposeful, so ones with determinental or neg. effects possible 3. Multilevel Selection 1. eg Kinship group 1. Birds that understand one species warning cry will benefit 2. eg Species as a unit of selection 1. Hull 2. Argues it is next level of organismal evolution 3. Need something to reproduce with to perpetuate genes 1. Change at one level constains that at another level 4. The Active Role of Genes
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1. Kauffman: Self-organization 1. Equally viable method 2. Constain possibilities 3. Eg: Sponateneous protein folding 3. DNA and the Origin of Life 1. DNA 1. Discovered: 1953 by Watson and Crick 2. Two anti-parallel strands composed of nucleotides 3. Complementary pairing: ACGT, method for semi-conservative replication 4. DNA -> RNA -> Protein via genetic code 2. Origin of Life 1. Stanley Miller: Primordial Soup 1. Nucleic acids spontaneously arise, microspheres pre-cells 2. Crystals of Clay 1. Similar to using a crystallization seed 3. Genetic code arising from? 1. GGG is the most stable, Gly the most common 2. Eigen: autocatyclytic hypercycle of 4 RNA chains that could synthesize protoproteins 4. DNA, Information, and Systems Theory 1. DNA is a form of information 1. Reduced degradation of message via 1. Redundancy (multiple codons per AA) 2. Rules (GGG codes for glycine) 2. Information: Ordered pattern 1. Communicated (RNA -> Protein) Message leads to linear structure which leads to 3D structure which leads to function 3. Depends on larger wholes: 1. Laws of chemistry 2. But just from the laws of chemistry, don't know shit 2. 2 Hierarchies 1. 1) Genealogical 1. Gene, organism, species 2. 2) Organizational 1. Atom, molecule, cell, organ, organism, population, ecosystem 3. A Hierarchy of Levels 1. >Intro 2. > Crick was a massive proponent of reductionism. Ultimately he hoped that
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