Geography Notes

Geography Notes - Introduction GEOGRAPHY: the study and...

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Introduction GEOGRAPHY : the study and analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena on the Earth's surface, and the underlying processes which cause the observed pattern (pg. 1-3) ** the spatial science of areas, natural systems, & man- made systems. Four Traditions in Geography: developed by W.D. Pattison in 1964 Earth-Science tradition : physical geography; studying the world around us, climate, landforms, plants & animals, etc. Culture-Environment tradition : the impacts of the environment on people & their impact on the environment; the relationship bewtween human societies EX: the impact of deforestation on a region, or the impact of a hurricane on a region Locational tradition: the spatial component of geography; being concerned with where things are; the patterns or distribution of the phenomena EX: Location Theory : used yo explain the pattern of an activity or phenomena
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Area-Analysis tradition: regional science or study; studying all the various phenomena of a particular area of the world EX: regional study of North America, Asia, or Africa, Five Fundamental Themes of Geography: developed in the 1980's by the National Geographic Society and numerous geographers in the U.S. (Fig. 1.1, pg. 4) 1) Location : absolute and relative 2) Place : characteristics that make a location unique 3) Movement : diffusion across Earth's surface 4) Regions : areas with uniform/similar characteristics 5) Human-Earth Relationships : use of the environment by humans 3 Main Sub-disciplines or areas in Geography (Fig. 1.2, pg. 5) 1) Physical Geography : Biogeography, Geomorphology, Climatology, Hydrogeography, Soils geography 2) Human/Cultural Geography : Economic, Political, Historical, Population, Urban, etc. 3) Techniques : Cartography, Remote Sensing, Aerial
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Photography, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) ** In this course we are concerned with Physical Geography. * As an area of study, Physical Geography is quite old. ** Eratosthenes , a Greek who lived from 275 to 195 B.C. , is considered one of the first "geographers". * Measured the polar circumference of the earth (Fig. 10, pg. 16) * Became an accomplished cartographer or mapmaker * Developed the idea of environmental zones based on temperature (T°) ** Other famous early geographers: * Greek scholars : Aristole, (384-322 B.C.), Hipparchus, (2 nd cent. B.C.) * Roman scholars : Strabo, (63 B.C. - 24 A.D.), Ptolemy, (100 - 170 A.D.) * Muslim scholars : Edrisi (1099-1154), ibn-Batuta (1304-1378) * Chinese scholars : Phei Hsiu, (3 rd cent. A.D.), Chinese geographical study has been dated as far back as the 5 th cent. B.C.
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* German scholars : Bernhardus Varenius (1622-1650) * Alexander von Humboldt , (1769-1859), considered by some the "father" of modern physical geography (pg. 616) * Traveled and studied throughout the Americas, and Siberia * Credited with bringing "scientific study" to the field of physical geography
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Geography Notes - Introduction GEOGRAPHY: the study and...

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