Grand Stategy Theory Paper Notes fall '09

Grand Stategy Theory Paper Notes fall '09 - Structure of...

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Structure of the Paper: - What is Grand Strategy? o Differentiate between GS and foreign policy in general o Differentiate between tactics, strategy, and grand strategy - History of GS study: o Military Luttwak’s expansionist vs. status quo Kupchan’s compellence, deterrence, accommodationist Johnston’s accomodationist, defensive, expansionist o Prescriptive Analyses o Adaptation of structural theories Offensive (old) realism Offensive (Mearsheimer) realism/offshore balancing defensive realism extraregional hegemony theory Gaddis’ regional vs. extraregional hegemony More? - Hierarchies of a state’s goals o Survival vs. prosperity; realism vs. liberalism Keeping in mind the 3 rd attempt at GS study o Ends and means - Lack of an Organizing Framework and Shortcomings of previous studies o Shortcomings o Flexibility o Comprehensiveness - Our Model o David Singer’s Levels of Analysis o Recap hierarchy of goals o Elements o Principles - Implications o Measuring power o Other actors besides states o Limitations o Others? What is Grand Strategy? “The crux of grand strategy lies therefore in policy, that is, in the capacity of the nation’s leaders to bring together all of the elements both military and nonmilitary, for the preservation and enhancement of the nation’s long-term (that is, in wartime and peacetime) best interests” (Kennedy, 5).
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“Grand strategy is a broad subject: a grand strategy tells a nation’s leaders what goals they should aim for and how best they can use their country’s military power to attain these goals.” (Art 1-2) “Grand strategy is a state’s theory about how it best can create security for itself” (Layne, 6). - This is clearly realist; see below. “Grand strategy is, as Stephen Walt puts it, a set of cause-and-effect hypotheses postulating which policies are most likely to produce the strategic out comes that policymakers desire. The success of a state’s grand strategy depends, therefore, “on whether the hypotheses [policymakers] embrace correct”” (Layne, 6). “Grand strategy – what Edward Meade Earle called “the highest type of strategy” – is the most crucial task of statecraft. As Geoffrey Parker observes, grand strategy “encompasses the decisions of a state about its overall security – the threats it perceives, the way in which it confronts them , and the steps it takes to match ends and means.” Distilled to its essence, grand strategy is about determining a state’s vital interests – those important enough to fight over – and it role in the world. From the determination springs a state’s alliances, overseas military commitments, conception of it stake in the prevailing international order, and the size and structure of its armed forces. “The crux of grand strategy lies,” Paul Kennedy observes, “in policy , that is, I the capacity of the nation’s leaders to bring together all of the elements, both military and non-military, for the
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