wider_0202 - World Institute for Development Economics...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
World Institute for Development Economics Research United Nations University 2002 WIDER Annual Lecture Winners and Losers in Two Centuries of Globalization T he globalization of the world economic and social structure - in terms of increased volumes of both immigration and trade - is certainly one of the key characteristics describing how the relationships among countries has changed in the past three decades. There are obvious similarities in the economic impact of immigration and trade: both of these flows bring scarce resources into the country. But there also exist equally important differences. Immigration introduces cultural, political, and economic considerations that are absent when discussing the impact of foreign trade. Simply put, importing workers to harvest tomatoes is not the same thing as importing tomatoes. Partly as a result of these differences, the issues of migration and asylum have risen to the very top of the international agenda. This is partly a question of numbers. Around 175 million people now live in a country other than the one in which they were born, and more people than ever are moving - or trying to move - from one country and continent to another. As an example, in the United States, the main immigrant-receiving country, the share of the population that is foreign-born more than T he 2002 WIDER Annual Lecture was delivered by Professor Jeffrey Williamson of Harvard University on 5 September 2002 at the University of Copenhagen. In his presentation, Professor Williamson noted that while world inequality has been trending upwards for most of the past 500 years, ±globalization² defined in terms of commodity price convergence across regions of the world, only began around 1820. During the ±first global century² up to 1913, lower transport costs and tariffs stimulated trade, which together with relatively free factor mobility created powerful egalitarian forces on a world scale. Professor Williamson stressed that not everyone stood to benefit from a continuation of these policies and the period from 1913-50 was characterized by an anti-globalization backlash under which restrictions on migration and rising tariffs resulted in price divergence across countries. The period from 1950 until the present day constitutes the second globalization era. It differs, however, from the first global century in one important respect: the mass labour migrations that were the main globalization force in the nineteenth century have been replaced by immigration controls, leaving trade (aided by tariff reductions) as the principal source of international price convergence. The lecture concludes with four lessons of history and an agenda for international economists, including more attention to the impact of globalization on commodity price structure, the causes of protection, the impact of world migration on poverty eradication, and the role of political participation in the whole process. This event was sponsored by the Royal Danish
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Wormer during the Fall '08 term at Boise State.

Page1 / 20

wider_0202 - World Institute for Development Economics...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online