Chapter1_Lecture_ANE_First_Civilizations

Chapter1_Lecture_ANE_First_Civilizations - Chapter 1 The...

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Chapter 1 The Ancient Near East: The First Civilizations
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Timeline
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The Emergence of Civilization Civilization Defined “… a population that shares a single intellectual framework, often held together by some combination of shared religious beliefs, economic necessity, and political organization.” “ … a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a variety of common elements.” (Spielvogel) Six Characteristics of Civilization Urban Focus – cities become center of life
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The Emergence of Civilization Six Characteristics of Civ. (cont.) Distinct Religious Structure (gods; priests) Political & Military Structures (bureaucracy; armies) Social structure based on economic power Top – Kings, priests, political leaders, warriors Middle – free people (farmers, artisans) Bottom – slave class Writing – Record keeping
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The Emergence of Civilization Six Characteristics of Civ. (cont.) Activity Monumental architectural structures, usu. religious What is Western about Western Civ.?* Geographically Western? Generally assumed - Civilization of Western Europe Complication #1 … where is line between East/West Europe? (if there is one at all) Certainly includes London, Paris, Madrid, Amsterdam … but what about Prague, Istanbul, Warsaw, St. Petersburg?
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Nineteenth-Century Europe
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The Emergence of Civilization What’s Western about Western Civ.? (cont.) Geographically Western? (cont.) Generally assumed – Civ. of Western Europe (cont.) Complication #2 Western Civ. originated w/peoples of E. Mediterranean/Middle East … … Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks Not Western geographically … … but critical to development of Western Civ. Complication #3 Global expansion of Western Civ. since Columbus … … values & ideas powerful forces elsewhere …
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The Emergence of Civilization What’s Western about Western Civ.? (cont.) Geographically Western? (cont.) Generally assumed – Civ. of Western Europe (cont.) Complication #3 (cont.) … including N. America, S. America, Australia Native cultures have survived … … but Western Civ. dominant Today, Western Civ. irrefutably global Attempt to define Western geographically doesn’t work Culturally Western? Precise cultural traits of Western Civ.?
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The Emergence of Civilization What’s Western about Western Civ.? (cont.) Culturally Western? (cont.) Precise cultural traits of Western Civ? (cont.) Actually, inconsistent in its values Credited w/concepts of individual rights, personal freedom … … yet often embraced serfdom, slavery Often promotes diversity, intellectual freedom … … but episodes of repression vs. nonconformists Modern West – representative gov’t, democracy … … fairly “recent” development … … mostly governed by monarchies … … but brutal 20 th -Century dictatorships
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1940 (National Archives)
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Chapter1_Lecture_ANE_First_Civilizations - Chapter 1 The...

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