Chapter5_Lecture_Roman_Republic

Chapter5_Lecture_Roman_Republic - Chapter 5 The Roman...

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Chapter 5 The Roman Republic
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Timeline
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Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 – 133 B.C.) The Struggle with Carthage Romans had conquered Italy Fought and defeated Gk. Communities in S. Italy … … including the persistent Pyrrhus (280 – 272 B.C.) Carthage Founded ca. 800 B.C. Good location – W. Mediterranean … … by early 3 rd Century B.C., important commercial center Strong military state Army one of best in ancient world
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Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 – 133 B.C.) The Struggle with Carthage (cont.) Carthage (cont.) Empire included N. African coast, Sardinia, Corsica, W. Sicily Presence in Sicily made Romans nervous … … both Carthage, Rome major powers First Punic War (264 – 241 B.C.) Origins Struggle between Syracuse, Messana Messanans appeal to Carthage for help … … then change their minds – appeal to Rome ! An “accidental” war begins (264)
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Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 – 133 B.C.) The Struggle with Carthage (cont.) First Punic War (264 – 241 B.C.) (cont.) Course of the War Romans notice Carthage has a good navy … … they have none at all! Beginning in 260, they build 100+ ships Long series of battles Roman fleet defeats Carthaginian navy near Drepana (242) … … W. Sicilian cities give up War ends (241) Carthage gives up rights to Sicily Post-war insult Romans seize Sardinia, Corsica (238)
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Hamilcar Barca
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Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 – 133 B.C.) The Struggle with Carthage (cont.) Second Punic War (218 – 205 B.C.) Origins Carthage recovers under leading general Hamilcar To make up for loss of Sicily … … Hamilcar expands economic operations to Spain Crucially, Carthage gains Spanish mercenaries Build up formidable army Hannibal Son of Hamilcar Legend has it: dad made him swear to hate Rome forever Takes over Carthage (221)
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Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 – 133 B.C.) The Struggle with Carthage (cont.) Second Punic War (218 – 205 B.C.) (cont.) Hannibal (cont.) Saguntum In Carthaginian sphere of Spain Rome promotes anti-Carthage sentiment there Hannibal attacks Saguntum … … Romans declare war on Carthage (218) Stunning Invasion of Italy H. marches troops across Alps into N. Italy Plan – 1.) split Rome from her subordinated allies … … 2.) win Italian cities from Rome Failed – nearly all remained loyal to Rome
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Hannibal Barca
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Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 – 133 B.C.) The Struggle with Carthage (cont.) Second Punic War (218 – 205 B.C.) (cont.) Hannibal (cont.) Battle of Cannae (216 B.C.) Rome decides to meet Hannibal head on Hannibal’s army wins; mass Roman casualties Some S. Italian cities flip to Carthaginian side Rome recovers Hannibal could not lay siege to major cities
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Chapter5_Lecture_Roman_Republic - Chapter 5 The Roman...

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