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1ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Annotated Bibliography Leslie M. KinardDepartment of Education, Liberty UniversityEDUC 703: Theories of Historical and Social Foundations of EducationDr. Rockford SansomAugust 2, 2020Author NoteLeslie M. KinardI have no known conflict of interest to disclose.Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Leslie Kinard Email:[email protected]
2ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Annotated Bibliography Paulo FreireFreire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Pearson.Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed is a mixture of political, philosophical, and educational theory. Freire provides a theory of oppression and the basis for liberation. In Freire's understanding, the key to freedom is developing critical consciousness and the thought process of the individual. This occurs through a transformation of education, which creates trust between the student and the teacher, authorizing the student to enter into a conversation and start the development of transformative education through reflection and action. Freire begins the book with a preface that presents the idea of critical consciousness. Freire introduces the issue of the fear of freedom seen in those entrenched in a situation of oppression. Freire communicates critical consciousness and the subsequent synthesis of ideas and action to salvage our humanity and become more empathetic. Freire suggests this is a central drive of human nature, while oppression is dehumanizing, both for the oppressor and the oppressed. Freire specifies a methodology to work with others in a community to recognize the themes that are significant to their existence and to produce items for study, such as images, recorded interviews, texts, literature, or additional forms of media, to serve as the emphasis for dialogue. Freire, thenshares how this theory applies to the political arena and to the progress of transformative leaders working in oppressed communities. He develops four techniques used to oppress others against dialogue and are thereby used to maintain and control others. These include cultural invasion, division, manipulation, and conquest. Four pro-dialogue, techniques stand in opposition to these and must be used by transformative leaders. These
3ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY are unity for liberation, organization, cooperation, and cultural synthesis. In the analysis, Gutek (2011) shares that Freire's liberation pedagogy was involved in creating alternatives to the dominant culture. Ideas that connect liberatory education directly impact transforming political and social constructs that impede educational outcomes. Myers, W. R., Pippin, T., Carvalhaes, C., & Anda, N. de. (2019). Forum on Paulo Freire’s pedagogy: Leaning educationally into our future. Teaching Theology & Religion, 22(1), 56–72. This article provided a critical reflection of the authors' education, the church, and societyafter reading Paulo Freire's book Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Pedagogy of the Oppressedwas a life-changing work that shaped the lives of each author. Throughout the course of