Lecture11

Lecture11 - Atmosphere and Hydrosphere The Earth is...

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1 ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Earth’s Atmosphere and Moon ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Atmosphere and Hydrosphere The Earth is surrounded by a thin envelope of gas, its atmosphere Mass of the atmosphere is only 10 -6 of the total mass of the Earth If the Earth were the size of an apple, the atmosphere would be thinner than the apple’s skin! Mostly nitrogen More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, its hydrosphere ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Atmospheric Pressure The atmosphere of the Earth pushes downward on the surface, and everything on it The closer you are to the surface, the greater the weight This weight is called atmospheric pressure At the surface (sea level), atmospheric pressure is called one atmosphere ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Atmospheric Layers I The atmosphere of the Earth has layers Troposphere Lowermost layer, extending to around 12 km upward Temperature decreases rapidly with altitude Most clouds are here Stratosphere Extends from the tropopause to about 50 km up Temperature increases with altitude Ozone layer is here
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2 ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Atmospheric Layers II Ionosphere Located above 80 km or so Most atoms are ionized – one or more electrons have been removed from each atom These ionized particles reflect AM radio signals back down to Earth ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Aurora –The Aurora (Northern Lights) are located in the ionosphere •Electrical currents flowing through the atmosphere •Created by energetic particles colliding and exciting ionospheric particles ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Shaping Effects of Water Liquid water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface Flow of water cuts through rock via erosion, carving river channels and canyons Water also acts as storage for carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas It also can change the chemical makeup of rocks, making them melt at lower temperatures ©2010 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Atmosphere, Light and Global Warming Our atmosphere blocks certain wavelengths of light, keeping them from reaching the surface Ultraviolet light is absorbed by ozone Without ozone, life on Earth would suffer dramatically! Carbon dioxide also
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course ASTR 5 taught by Professor Rhee during the Spring '11 term at Mt. SAC.

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Lecture11 - Atmosphere and Hydrosphere The Earth is...

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