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DEAL IS REACHED TO SAVE CALIFORNIA REDWOOD FOREST (Clifford) • Pacific Lumber Co. makes deal to save California’s Forest. • Transfers about 10,000 acres into public ownership and set strict new guidelines for protecting water quality and wildlife on over 200,000 acres of Pacifc Lumber’s territory. -Prohibiting logging near streams or taking down trees in no-cutting zone. A REVISIONIST VIEW OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION AND DEVELOPMENT (Dove) • Rainforest Crunch approach → the idea that deforestation can be combated by the development of non-timber forest products for the benefit of forest dwellers. • Focusing attention on the microeconomics of forest dwellers; it diverts attention from macroeconomic and political issues whose impact on the forest is far more serious. • Non-timber products → attempts to allocate to the forest dwellers the resources of least interest to the broader society. • Dove feels that this rainforest crunch approach may destroy the forest. SOCIAL FORESTRY FOR WHOM? (Shiva) • India. • The Karnataka Program: a five-year social forestry program. • Failed because 1) it focused on private farm forestry and neglected communally owned forests 2) emphasized eucalyptus, which cannot be browsed by animals and provides no fodder, it produces no fruit of nuts, and it is not favored as a fuel ORGANIZING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (Rudel) • INEFAN (Instituto Ecuatoriano Forestal y de Areas Naturales) taxes those who cut down trees in the reserves • The SUBIR Project (Sustainable use of Biological Reserves) - Ecuadorian ecologists designed a plan for the sustainable harvesting of wood from primary forests in the buffer zone of the Cotacachi-Capayas Ecological Reserve -The SUBIR project has initiated a set of important institutional changes in the management of forests, and while the eventual magnitude of these changes remains unclear, the intial pattern indicates that conservation gains are possible in areas experiencing rapid deforestation THE PRICE OF EVERYTHING (Power & Rauber) • Free market and environmentalism on our natural resources AKA “new resource economics” - which promises to harness the vigor and inventiveness of capitalism to heal the earth. • Economists don’t account externalities. • Automobiles in urban settings. • When an environmental policy is made 3 factors are put into consideration -
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level of environmental protection desired in the location , who's going to pay for the direct costs of achieving the target level or protection, policy tools used to achieve to impose these costs. • They proposed something that they think is going to help the environment. -Clean Air Act (1990): allows plants that pollute below certain levels to sell pollution “credits” to dirtier concerns.
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