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November 15-- ch 12 aggression

November 15-- ch 12 aggression - A-Why does watching...

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November 15, 2010 A-Why does watching pro-social behavior increase helping? 1- Cognitive factors: a. Observational learning b. Priming pro-social schemas 2- Affective factors a. “elevation” of mood 3- Neurobiological factors a. Activation of mirror neurons b. Increase in ‘tending and befriending’ hormones 4- Oxitocin = one of the hormones that attributes to bond between mother and baby a. Leads people to tend to befriend others B- **(CHAPTER 12) Agression: Why We hurt other people 1- What is Aggression? a. An aggressive action is intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological harm in another person b. Hostile aggression: an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed only at inflicting pain c. Instrumental aggression: is aggression that serves as a means to some goal just than causing pain c.i. Unemotional execution c.ii. The purpose of inflicting the harm is not to do pain, or express anger, but is merely to earn 2- Agression: Hostile or Insturmental? a. A convicted murderer is executed under capital punishment law in order to deter other potential murderers a.i. Instrumental b. In a fit of anger, a father spanks his disobedient 6-yr-old b.i. Hostile c. A woman shoots mace at her attacker to avoid being raped c.i. Instrumental d. Another driver cuts in front of me at a toll booth, so I give him the finger when I later pass him d.i. Hostile e. Professor lowers a student’s grade on a late paper in keeping with the policy stated on her syllabus e.i. Instrumental f. A pitcher, in order to keep a batter off the plate so he can strike him out more easily, throws an inside pitch that hits him f.i. Instrumental g. A husband furious that his wife has cheated on him, starts a fight with another patron in a bar g.i. Hostile 3- Aggression: Innate Instinct or Learned Social Custom? a. Instinct : pattern of behavior that an organism is not capable of regulating
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b. Freud postulated that humans have innate instincts towards life, Eros , and towards death, Thanatos . Displaced outward, Thanatos becomes aggression toward others b.i. Other people become the object of this unconscious force c. Universality of animal aggression : E.g., The territorial imperative and
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