acid-base - J Garcia 2012 1 Introduction Introduction 2 3...

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1/23/2012 1 ACID-BASE TITRATIONS CONCEPTS AND TITRATION CURVES Jonyl L. Garcia Analytical Chemistry 2 for BS Chemistry 1/23/2012 7:27 PM 1 J. Garcia 2012 Introduction Popular method of analysis Relative ease Speed Low-cost 1/23/2012 7:27 PM 2 J. Garcia 2012 Introduction Successful titration Availability of suitable titrant Fast and quantitative reaction Means of estimating equivalence point 1/23/2012 7:27 PM 3 J. Garcia 2012 Solutions and Indicators in Acid-Base Titrations Standard Solution Strong acids: HCl, HClO 4 , H 2 SO 4 Strong bases: NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH) 2 * Never use weak acids and bases as titrants! 1/23/2012 7:27 PM 4 J. Garcia 2012 Solutions and Indicators in Acid-Base Titrations Indicators Is a weak organic acid or a weak organic base whose undissociated form differs in color from its conjugate acid or its conjugate base form (solvatochromic) Indicator pH range: pK a ± 1 1/23/2012 7:27 PM 5 J. Garcia 2012 Common Indicators 1/23/2012 7:27 PM J. Garcia 2012 6 Solutions and Indicators in Acid-Base Titrations Titration Errors with Acid/Base Indicators Determinate error Occurs when the pH at which the indicator changes color differs from the pH at the equivalence point. Can be minimized by choosing the indicator carefully or by making blank correction Indeterminate error Originates from the limited ability of the eye to reproducibly distinguish the intermediate color of the indicator Average visual uncertainty: ± 0.5 to ± 1 pH unit 1/23/2012 7:27 PM 7 J. Garcia 2012 Solutions and Indicators in Acid-Base Titrations Variables that Influence the Behavior of Indicators
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