Oceanography Exam 2 - Oceanography Exam 2 Ocean Physics...

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Oceanography Exam 2 Ocean Physics Water density o Mainly dependent on temp. and salinity but also pressure, water is pretty resistant to compression o Open ocean varies between 1.02 and 1.03 g/cm^3 o Possible to have same density but different temp. and salinity, not totally linear relationship o Convection does not happen in oceans because of temperature, turnover only happens because of density o Possible to have same density but different temp and salinity o Ocean water develops stable layers based on density o Density in trenches 5% greater than at surface In situ density (σ) o Density in place = (specific gravity – 1)*1000 o Specific gravity = density of ocean water/density of pure water o Ex. Water with a density of 1.02567 g/cm^3 has an in situ density of 25.67 (no units) Potential density (σ θ ) o σ θ removes this increase in temperature from the density calculation o Subsurface currents flow along lines of equal σ θ o Water at bottom of trenches is warmer than surface because of pressure Specific Gravity and Beer o Initial SG affected by composition of the wort and sugar content o Lite beers – 1.020 – 1.040 g/cm^3 o Final SG controlled by alcohol content: SG of alcohol < that of water Density Structure of Ocean o Three main regions: o 1. Surface zone of mixed layer Upper layer Least dense Temp and salinity fairly constant owing to mixing by waves and wind To 1000m or absent Smallest in tropical environments, moderate depth in temperate weather o 2. Pycnocline – transition zone Density increases with depth Strong barrier to water movement Thermocline Temp. decreases with depth Main control on density in temperate latitudes
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May be absent in polar regions o Salinity dependent o Called a halocline o 3. Deep zone Little additional changes with depth Most of oceans volume Light in the ocean o Refraction Bending of waves, light or sound Result of waves moving faster in regions of higher density Refractive index – change of angle Measures magnitude of refraction Increases with increasing density Fundamental characteristics of waves o Amplitude = ½ wave height o Wavelength = distance between 2 points on wave (2 crests) o Frequency = rate of oscillation, measured in cycles/sec = Hertz (Hz) Light – electromagnetic radiation o Electromagnetic spectrum Light can be characterized based on its wavelength from sun 10^-11 cm to 100 km Only a small fraction exists as visible light Most of suns spectrum concentrated in visible spectrum .3 microns to .7 microns Solar Energy: absorption and emission o The flame test Different elements exposed to same energy (1 wavelength) Produce different wavelengths of light Absorbed energy will be emitted at a different wavelength The wavelength emitted depends on the material o How is energy transformed? Extremely short wave, high energy is absorbed by atoms
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Oceanography Exam 2 - Oceanography Exam 2 Ocean Physics...

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