Lecture prelim 2 - ScientificMethods 14:14...

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Scientific Methods 14:14 Naturalistic Observation Discovery of REM sleep Systematic Assessment MSLT (measures alertness) MBTi (measures personality Experimental Manipulation The milgram experiments The smoke filled room What’s the best method? The one that’s most appropriate! Naturalistic Observation—“Real Life” ESP proof? Alternative explanations? Systematic Assessment SATs, LSATs, GMATs, MCATs, GREs are reliable; but are they good predictors of  success in a career? Experimental Manipulation Milgram experiment, tightly controlled; but  Scientific Methodology Naturalistic Observation See and record what happens in the natural, undisturbed state. Limited to observable  behaviors Great for gathering hypotheses to be tested under controlled conditions
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Observe a representative sample of Ss if you wish to generalize your finding to a larger  population If the world were 100 people: 60 Asians 12 Europeans 15 north and south Americas 13 Africans 89% of wealth=20 people 67 non Christian, 33 Christian 25 would live in substandard housing 17 illiterate 13 would suffer from malnutrition 4 would own a computer  only 2 would have a college education Observe all relevant factors Clever Hans 1900 Claims of “Faith Healers” Are you observing all relevant factors Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Clairvoyance: Discerning objects—not present to the known senses E.g. what’s in a shoe ox, what card is it Telepathy: Mind reading – without mediation of known channel of sensory  In observing demonstration of “ESP” Have you observed all relevant factors Dr. Daryl Bem ESP or mater Illusionist
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14:14 Guess the card generated by computer
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14:14 How was the subject selected? Catherine’s ESP skill? Stage Magic Ho was the information gathered? ESP? Information gathering by Cold Reading Most “Psychic Power” claims? Stage Magic Trickery Naturalistic Observations Observe a representative sample Observe all relevant factors Make unbiased observations Rosenthal: Pygmalion in the Classroom Do not disturb the Behavior –hide from sight Become a participant observer Participant-Observer Studies Blue-Collar Journal: John Coleman Dishwasher Ditch Digger, Garbage Man Observing mental patients (jbm) Observing hospital staff
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14:14 Rosenhan: hearing voices (“empty, dull, thud”) Become a permanent fixture (jane Goodall, Chimps) Secondary Records Research Causes of anorexia in young women Diaries Causes of shark attacks Hospital records Violent behavior of sports fans Newspapers Naturalistic observations Advantages: Behavior is natural A must method for studying some phenomena Good for exploratory research
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14:14 MMPI
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2012 for the course HADM 3387 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lecture prelim 2 - ScientificMethods 14:14...

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