Early US ad agencies and agents- Newspaper space brokers who would buy newspaper
space and sell it to merchants.
Early Trends in advertising (What Products?)- By the end of the 1800s, half the ads were
for patent medicines or departments stores.
How ads promoted social changes- Many ads dangerous or frauds, let to self-policing and
Federal Food and Drug Act/FDA, changed society from producer to consumer directed,
promoted new technology, more appeal to female consumers, and emphasized ad’s power
for social good.
Ad Council, FCC, FTC- Founded in the 40s, created important campaigns like Smokey
the Bear. The FCC mandated in 2005 that consumers be warned about product placement
on the media. FTC and other NGOs monitor ads, the FTC investigates deceptive and false
Subliminal Ads- Term coined in the 1950s by James Vicary, experimented with drink
coca cola, a few examples but no more effective than regular ads.
Ad agency structure- Account planning which is market research assessing behaviors and
attitudes using demographics and psychographics, Creative development which is
writers and artists who outline the rough sketch and produce ads, Media coordination
which is media buyers who choose and buy the media best suited for a client’s ad and
reach the target audience, and Account Services in which account executives are
responsible for bringing in new business and managing the accounts of established
Types of Ad Agencies- Mega Agencies are large firms that maintain regional offices
nation/worldwide. Boutique agencies are ones that usually break away from bigger
agencies when creative individuals form small agencies and offer intimate services.
Persuasive techniques in advertising- Snob Appeal which using a product will elevate
one’s status, Plain Folks with Volkswagen ad, Bandwagon that says everyone does it,
Famous-Person Testimonial with Norris and Huckabee, Hidden Fear like deodorants
which play on social anxiety, Irritation with annoying car dealer ads, Association with
product associated with positive image or value, and Dissociation with Saturn as a stand-
alone brand not part of GM.
“The Truth” Campaign- National youth smoking prevention campaign, recognized by
80% of teens in 2007, top 10 most memorable teen brands.
Political advertising/Online Advertising- Online ads since the 1990s, Banner ads were the
earliest form, today more like flash illumination, popups, interstitial (in between from 1
page to the next) and paid search ads.
Political Advertising, politics and ads go hand in
hand, political ads big since the 1950s, and also about demoting others.