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MIDTERM 2 STUDY GUIDE Explain the difference between sexual preferences, sexual behavior, and sexual identity Sexual preferences: Attraction, desire, arousal What a person wants Sexual behavior How preferences and opportunities translate into sexual acts Physical contact heightens arousal What people actually do Sexual identity The self/social classification of people based on their sexual preferences and behaviors as gay, lesbian, straight, etc. Classifying oneself and classifying others o Why are people always classified by their sexual orientation and not based on other things? o Example, if someone is gay, people always initially that as a way of describing them Internal and external identity construction since late 19 th century Explain the difference between teenage birth rate (8%) and the nonmarital teenage birth-ratio (over 80%) Does teenage childbearing cause disadvantage? Explain. No it does not. This is because the people who are teenage mothers are people are who are already more likely to have less money, less education, etc. Therefore, this is a selection story and it does not cause disadvantage. Explain the differences between institutional, companionate, and individualization in marriage. Institutional: 19 th century Clear rules and roles o Men and women live their lives in separate roles o Husband had authority over the wife and children Coverture o The wife was supposed to be responsible for the domestic sphere Externally enforced by church, law, community o Essential way of living o They enforced these laws and they could not be broken o “Doing marriage” Male authority; wife was domestic, dutiful, and submissive Companionate: Until about the 1960s
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Still a sharp division of labor o Homemaker-breadwinner model is still ideal New emphasis on affection, friendship, and sexual gratification o A spouse is now seen as a companion or a partner, not just a collaborator in the home o Increased expectation that spouses love each other o This was hard for many because they did not grow up with this when they were children, so they didn’t have a model to go off of Individualized: Marriage today Cultural and economic sources o There is a large emphasis on personal fulfillment o Self-development All about personal fulfillment Less and less people are getting married to make others happy, it is more based on making oneself happy o Openness and communication o Flexible roles (decline of homemaker breadwinner model, rise of the dual earner model) Women’s and role and expectation has changed More and more women are entering the labor force o Enabled by rising standards of living Possibility of leaving dissatisfying relationships Gives people the opportunity to leave a marriage if they are unhappy Marriage is now described as a capstone experience. What does this mean? In the past, you had to get married in order to be respected and in order to fit into society.
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