Chapter10_Lecture_The_Crusades

Chapter10_Lecture_The_Crusades - Chapter 10 The Crusades...

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Chapter 10 The Crusades
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The Crusades Introduction to The Crusades A manifestation of church power A series of military expeditions – in fact a holy war … to recapture the (Xn.) holy places – especially Jerusalem … … from the “infidels” (i.e., the Muslims) Gave medieval papacy opportunity to demonstrate its influence over Europe A “curious mix of God and warfare”? (Spielvogel, 274)
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The Crusades Background to the Crusades Islamic Empire: 7 th Century Developments Muhammad dies (632) His father-in-law, Abu Bakr, chosen as his successor ( caliph ) Sunnis immediately recognize Abu Bakr as caliph Shi’as believe Muhammad’s cousin Ali should be caliph ( Shiat Ali – “partisans of Ali”) Ali later becomes fourth caliph … … but Aisha, Muhammad’s wife & daughter of Abu Bakr initially oppose Ali’s rule Major battle ensue in Basra, S. Iraq – Aisha defeated She later apologizes to Ali, but the damage is done … Sunni/Shi’a divide persists …
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The Crusades Background to the Crusades (cont.) Islamic Empire: 7 th Century Developments (cont.) W/in 2 years of Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr consolidates Arabia under Muslim control Abu Bakr dies (634) Succeeded by Umar, the 2 nd caliph Islamic rule spread through military conquest Early military campaign against Byzantine Empire Major Muslim Victory – Battle of the Yarmuk (636) Former Byzantine states – Syria, Palestine, Lebanon – fall into Muslim hands Jerusalem captured by Muslims in 638 Umayyads establish Damascus as capital in 661 Jerusalem stays in Muslim hands until 1099
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The Expansion of Islam (7 th -8 th Centuries)
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The Crusades (cont.) Background to the Crusades (cont.) Islamic Empire: 7 th Century Developments (cont.) Pilgrimages by Xns. to Jerusalem generally permitted Uneasy acceptance of Muslim domination of Jerusalem Islam, The Fatimids and the Seljuk Turks Change, Disintegration in the Muslim world By mid-10 th century: Islamic empire, led by Abbasid caliphate (Baghdad), disintegrating Spain falls to Umayyads in 750 Egypt – Tulunids broke away from Abbasids in 868 Attempt made to unify Islamic world under Shi’ite Fatimid dynasty
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Pilgrimage Routes in the Middle Ages
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The Crusades (cont.) Background to the Crusades (cont.) Islam, The Fatimids and the Seljuk Turks (cont.) Change, Disintegration in the Muslim world (cont.) Fatimid Dynasty (ca. 969-1171) Fatimids – origins in N. Africa Conquered Egypt, established Cairo as capital Shi’ite caliphate (Cairo) rivaling Sunni caliphate (Baghdad); Islamic world divided Fatimid dynasty surpasses Abassid caliphate as “dynamic center” of Islam Good location – played major role in regional trade (Generally) tolerant in religious matters But, Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim orders destruction of Church of Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem – 1009 … Byzantine Emperor allowed to rebuild it by later caliph – completed in 1048
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The Crusades (cont.) Background to the Crusades (cont.)
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Chapter10_Lecture_The_Crusades - Chapter 10 The Crusades...

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