P54 - P54-73 431 BC war erupts Sparta vs Athens Athens had...

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P54-73 431 BC war erupts Sparta vs Athens Athens had strong walls and held a funeral for all those who had died in battle o Led by Pericles Greeks created our intellectual foundations o A system of logical, analytical thought to examine the same questions we have today By 8 th century BC the polis had emerged Geography Played important role in the evolution of Greek history Greece occupied a small area compared to Mesopotamia The mountains and the sea isolating Greeks from one another o Each developing their own characteristics and paths o Mountains provided natural borders The seas provided numerous harbors o Making them seafarers first to make contact with the outside world and establish colonies spreading Greece to the Mediterranean region North of central Greece lay Macedonia who, led by Phillip II conquered them in 338 BC Minoan Crete Earliest civilization started on the Island of Crete Used much bronze age weaponry Named Minoan after the legendary king Minos of Crete (by Arthur Evans) Rich and prosperous culture were a “sea empire” that had made contact with the more advanced civilization of Egypt Height was at the palace of Knossus 2000-1450 BC o Art shows much love of nature o Elaborate drains
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o Frescos showed much sporting events The fall of Crete is debated o Tsunami by volcanic eruption o Mycenaeans invade (most agreed one) Mycenaeans Flourished 1600-1100BC Part of Indo-European family of peoples Known for its fortified palace centers surrounded by gigantic stone walls Consisted of a few powerful monarchies of a loose confederacy o Mycenae was the strongest Alphabet—linear B King was called wanax Bureacrats kept careful records Free citizens: peasants, soldiers, artisans, serfs and slaves Large trade network Mycenae is to believed to have gone and conquered Crete, some Agean Islands and even Troy o Still debated but Homer does provide some basis for his poetry 13 th century BC Mycenae torches itself entering a dark age culture ends 1100 bc Dark Age 1100-750 Pop and food declined 850 farming finally came back Many migrated o Aeolian-island of Lesbos and northwest coast of Asia minor o Dorians-southwest Greece, Crete Rhodes, Peloponnesus, southern Aegean islands Trade returns
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Iron age begins Phoenician alphabet is adopted Homeric Greece Iliad-epic of Trojan War; Odyssey In the Homeric view Greece was a society based on agriculture in which a landed warrior aristocracy controlled much wealth and exercised considerable power o Reflects the values of aristocratic heroes No history is recorded we go off of what Homer says Polis Emerged from Dark Age Encompassed a town or city where everyone assembled for political, social, and religious activities Poleis distrusted on another and patriotic sovereign units brought it to ruin o Cultural unity did not mean much politically Greek way of war
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P54 - P54-73 431 BC war erupts Sparta vs Athens Athens had...

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