p73-88 - Great Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Thucydides...

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Great Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Thucydides pointed out that the fundamental long-range cause of the war began in 431 when Sparta grew weary of Athens superior naval power which had the potential to weaken Sparta’s control over the Peloponnesian League The immediate causes were the conflicts between Corinth and Athens and Athens and Megara o Already were allies with Sparta Theses allies of Sparta threatened to withdraw from the Peloponnesian League o Thus Sparta gave Athens an ultimatum to either stop or war would ensue Pericles convinced the Athenians not to withdraw by saying if doing so would admit that Sparta was the dominant power Each side believed they had the edge o Athens-navy, the citizens of Attica would be brought in the protective walls supplied by the navy o Spartans-could beat Athenians in pitched battles Spartans invade Attica but Pericles sends out naval ships to ravage the Peloponnesian coast However plague strikes in the middle of the war on the crowded city of Athens killing 1/3 the population o Pericles dies in this 429 BC Control of Athens goes to Cleon leader of the war party o Opposed by Nicias of the conservative party for peace Cleon brought some successes for the Athenians Brasidas came to be a dynamic general for the Spartans However at the Battle of Amphipolis in 422 BC both generals were killed Then Nicias negotiates the Peace of Nicias 421 BC o 50 yr truce that solved nothing 415 BC (6 yrs later) second phase of the war begins by Pericles nephew Alcibiades
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o becomes general in 420 in 415 BC he convinced Athenians to invade Sicily, he said they would be a strong support but it was ill fated since he was reckless and self-seeking o He is removes himself as leader of the expedition on charges of profaning religious mysteries Then he fled to Sparta and told them how to defeat Athens by
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p73-88 - Great Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Thucydides...

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