p147-162 Roman Empire

p147-162 Roman Empire - p147-162 Octavian sets out to...

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p147-162 Octavian sets out to restore the Republic (31-14BC) Knew this was not possible but sought for a compromise In 27 BC the title Augustus meaning “revered one” is awarded to him by Senate Preferred the title princeps meaning chief citizen or first among equals The system of rule that Augustus established is called the principate =the idea of a constitutional monarch as co-ruler with the senate o But the princeps had the most power New Order Princeps and aristocratic senate o Senate was retained as the chief deliberative body of the Roman state o It’s decrees after being screened by the princeps were law o Until 23 BC when Augustus held office of consul princeps did not have right of power Augustus was quite popular and provided much peace, peace was his most powerful weapon Army Increased in size and time served o More trained and bureaucratic o Used to maintain domestic order o Agent of upward mobility o As well as Romanization wherever stationed 28 legions were present under Augustus o each soldier served 20 yrs o usually Italian citizens Also had auxiliary forces enlisted as subject peoples o Served as light-armed troops and cavalry commanded by Roman officers and tribal leaders o Numbered around 130,000
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o Recruited only from non-citizens served 24 yrs and then received citizenship for them and their families Praetorian guard o Established by Augustus to protect the princeps o Roughly 9,000 men o Roman citizens served for 16 yrs o Played important role for deposing and placing emperors Roman Provinces and Frontiers Augustus inaugurated a new system for governing provinces The Senate had appointed the provincial governors and certain provinces to each prince o Were also assigned a legate to assist them by a legate of the senatorial class, who held office as long as the emperor chose Augustus could overrule them if necessary A governor had relatively few administrative officials to assist him so efficiency depended on cooperation with the local authorities o In return for supporting the power of local elites (upper classes) Rome encouraged a substantial degree of self-government and local autonomy in the cities By doing this Rome made city-states the basic units of imperial administration City consuls made for stable local govt and city officials were rewarded for their services with Roman citizenship Frontier Policy Instead of making more provinces he established client kingdoms in the east o Allowing him to minimize Roman army presence and use them elsewhere
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p147-162 Roman Empire - p147-162 Octavian sets out to...

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