Unit 5 - Ethics

Unit 5 - Ethics - Unit 5 - Ethics I. The available options...

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Unit 5 - Ethics I. The available options for Ethical Theories A. Ethical Realism and Ethical Nihilism defined and described 1. Types of Ethical Realism - Moral truths are discovered and exist independently of the opinions and interests of humans. a) Divine Command b) Consequentialism c) Deontological Ethics d) Virtue Ethics e) Natural Law Ethics 2. Types of Ethical Nihilism - There are no moral truths or facts to be discovered; moral norms do not exist apart from the opinions and interests of humans. a) Moral Skepticism – moral principles do not fit in the natural world b) Non-cognitivism – moral judgments are simply emotional responses c) Social Contract Ethics – morality is ultimately social convention B. Ethical Relativism 1 - There exist moral norms, but they are relative to groups or individuals. 1. Cultural Relativism a) Moral truths are created by social groups, not by individuals. b) Arguments against Cultural Relativism: (1) Generality problem for culture: there seems to be no principled way to mark the boundaries of a culture, and thus no principled way to identify moral norms. (2) Conflicting Membership problem: (a) An individual may reside in two overlapping communities with opposing moral standards. How do we morally evaluate that individual’s actions? (b) Option 1: no privileged culture by which to evaluate the actions. i) Thus, there could be a set of actions which are both moral and immoral ii) Thus, a person could be both extremely moral and extremely immoral. iii) If we allow this, there is no real use or significance in moral evaluation. (c) Option 2: there is some privileged culture by which to evaluate the actions. i)
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Unit 5 - Ethics - Unit 5 - Ethics I. The available options...

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