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15- Learning in Class Notes

15- Learning in Class Notes - Introduction to the...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the Psychology of Learning Introduction Overview of the Next 2-3 Lectures • Locate Psychology of Learning within the History of Psychology and Philosophy of Psychology Philosophy • Review Major Concepts and Applications of Mainstream “Learning Psychology” Psychology” • Classical Conditioning (Ivon. Pavlov to Present) Classical Pavlov • Operant Conditioning (Burrius F. Skinner to Present) Operant Skinner • Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura is principal founder; Social Bandura Seligman’s work is also central) Seligman’s • Historical Roots of Modern Learning Theory Historical • Pavlov was a physiologist--he stumbled into research on “associative Pavlov “associative learning” Involves the process wherein stimuli become associated with learning” one another and come to subsitute one another and developed idea of one and “classical conditioning” “classical • The Legacy of Edward Thorndike: “The Law of Effect” (1911) The (1911) • consequences of behavior determine its survival It’s the consequence consequences It’s that determines whether we actually learn something that • Legacy of B.F. Skinner (1938, The Behavior of Organisms) Legacy The • Idea of “contingencies of reinforcement” built upon Thorndike’s concepts The structuring of how pleasant and unpleasant events occur The depending on our action including how we think and speak depending Philosophical Changes in Psychology: From Structuralism to Behaviorism and Beyond • The History of Modern Psychology began with Wilhelm Wundt, who The Wilhelm founded what came to be seen as a “school” of psychology focused on the founded “structure” of consciousness, the building blocks of perception. “structure” Proponents of this point of view were called “structuralists” and their Proponents school “Structuralism” Psychologists interested in the qualities of Psychologists perception. Got examiners to discuss their experiences. perception. • Structuralists, led by Wundt, studied the elements of perception (“atoms of the mind”) by using the methodology of “introspectionism” Self of Self reporting on themselves subjectively. • Psychology was revolutionized by John Watson in 1920’s, who articulated Psychology John a radical philosophy of psychology called “Behaviorism.” Study of radical Study objective analysis of behavior. Stimuli and response. If it is positively objective reinforced you are more likely to do it again. Did the little albert reinforced experiment. You can quantify results. experiment. • Watson and the Behaviorists rejected introspection and the study of consciousness in favor of the objective analysis of behavior alone. They consciousness said psychology should be about the study of what can be seen and said observed, it should be an S-R Psychology: S-R Psychology • Stimuli and Responses are observable and objective, and should be the sole object of study in psychology sole • Skinner popularized behaviorism further, extending its reach in academic psychology through the 1960’s, continuing to today. Something happens Something to us and then we do something subconsciously as a natural reaction. to Behaviorism. Behaviorism. Philosophical Changes in Contemporary Views of Learning: • Learning is no longer conceived as S-R psychology alone. Learning S-R • Instead, S-O-R models dominate (where O = “Organismic” events: S-O-R internal, cognitive, mental events with neurobiological underpinnings). internal, Also internal processes, personality and attributes that effect how we Also respond to things. (O) respond • Examples of “O” variables: cognitive processes (attitudes, thinking, perception, vicarious learning, “mental maps”), emotional processes, perception, biological mediating variables • Social Learning Theory rests on S-O-R conceptualizations Learning I: Basic Concepts In Classical Conditioning: • Classical Conditioning involves a process of what Pavlov called “stimulus substitution” • (a process of “associative learning” wherein stimuli are associated (a associated and one comes to substitute for another). Pavlov’s Original Discovery and Terminology, Diagrammed: Pavlov’s →UCR(salvate) UCR(salvate) UCS (food) →CR CS CS • UCS = UNLEARNED stimulus; CS=? UCS UNLEARNED • UCR = UNLEARNED response; CR=? UCR UNLEARNED • The UCS automatically elicits the UCR (reflex) The automatically • So for Pavlov the UCS was _______________ and the UCR was _________________ _________________ • CS (previously neutral S) is paired repeatedly, with temporal contiguity, CS neutral with UCS with • Over Trials (temporal pairings), CS comes to automatically elicit a Over automatically response (CR) that closely resembles the UCR resembles • (Note: CR is not identical to the UCR reflex, but instead is a learned (Note: reflex automatic associative response with similar form) automatic • So for Pavlov the CS was _________________ and the CR was ___________________ ___________________ Next figures portray Pavlov’s canine salivation experimental situation: More Principles of CC (be able to define each term and give examples) : More • Once a stimulus acquires conditioned properties through stimulus substitution, the brain also learns to: substitution, • Generalize among stimuli (stimulus generalization): Similar noises, ): Similar similar response similar • Discriminate among stimuli (stimulus discrimination): The ability to ): The know that it is not the same stimulus. know • Extinguish learned associations (extinction): If it is repeatedly rung with ): If no food provided then they will forget the response. no Next Slide shows more principles of CC: Next • Acquisition of CR’s: The process of getting a conditioned stimulis The • Extinction of CR’s: Extinction • Spontaneous Recovery of CR’s: Spontaneous Beyond Spit: Emotional Learning Involves CC (classical conditioning) Beyond Emotional • Positive and Negative emotions are acquired initially and maintained as a result of classical conditioning processes. result • Think, e.g., about why you “like” the products you use, or the foods you prefer? Has illness ever conditioned you to strongly dislike some foods? prefer? Why does some music, or sensations of physical touch, or smells, make Why you “happy”? Why are you anxious with some people, or slow to trust you others, or grumpy under particular circumstances? others, • Point: our feelings are learned through associative processes Videoclip: The Case of Little Albert. Videoclip: • John Watson Applied Pavlov’s Associative Learning (Classical Conditioning) to Albert’s Emotional Learning of Fear Conditioning) • Here-in we see original footage of what today would be unethical learning trials. Videoclip illustrates Mowrer’s Two-Factor Theory of Learning: Videoclip Factor 1: • 1) Fear is learned through classical conditioning: previously neutral 1) learned stimuli acquire their fear-inducing properties via stimulus substitution, stimuli generalization, and discrimination generalization, • Stimulus Substitution: UCS→UCR CS→CR (above is Factor 1 in Mowrer’s 2-factor theory) Factor 2: • 2) Fear is maintained through Operant Conditioning, also called 2) maintained Instrumental Conditioning. Specifically: Instrumental • avoidance responses are Operant behaviors (they operate on the avoidance Operant environment), also called Instrumental behaviors (they have an Instrumental instrumental effect on the environment). Avoidance behaviors are instrumental often strengthened by their consequences. This strengthening is called often “reinforcement”. • Remember, all reinforcement involves an increase in the behavior preceding it. • Avoidance behavior leads to fear reduction because the consequence of the behavior involves removal of an aversive stimulus. Thus removal avoidance is “negatively reinforced”, which is to say it is strengthened avoidance by the reduction in fear. (an increase in avoidance behavior follows increase the removal of fear/anxiety) the • so, avoidance learning--withdrawal, avoidance behaviors--increases so, avoidance --withdrawal, increases in frequency because it is negatively reinforced; AND, this in guarantees that extinction cannot occur because the learner extinction effectively never confronts the CS again! effectively For Little Albert, Identify Examples of the following CC principles: • Stimulus Substitution (factor 1, above): • Stimulus Generalization (which animals?): Stimulus • Stimulus Discrimination (which animals?): • Extinction (Principle applied by Mary Cover Jones to de-condition children’s fears). How would you “extinguish” Little Albert’s fear?— children’s Systematic Desensitization: A Modern Treatment for “Phobias” that Follows Mary Cover Jones Historical Example Follows • systematic desensitization (SD) takes classical conditioning into realm of cognition: visual imagery and mental associations are actively engaged cognition: • What is SD? A “cognitive-behavioral” method of treatment for phobias using the principle of “counterconditioning”. using ”. • Counterconditioning: a CC procedure for weakening a CR by associating the CS (fear-producing stimulus) with a new response associating incompatible with the fear incompatible • The SD Technique: The therapist, with the client, develops a hierarchy of The hierarchy feared situtions (CS’s; e.g., seeing pictures of snakes to napping with a feared Boa around your neck). • Next, person is taught relaxation + coping imagery and skills • Then, client applys learned skills while imagining CS’s. What Happens When Phobic Individuals Practice SD? What Practice • conditioned fear, a CR, is counterconditioned by newly developed conditioned counterconditioned newly incompatible responses.) incompatible with fear incompatible .) incompatible • Note: practice involves repeated trials, which are forms of pairings of stimuli! stimuli! • Result: Diminishment of Fear achieved through an increase of capacity Result: capacity and motivation for active coping/management of anxiety-producing motivation active situations. How Does SD Work? How • When/if we pair new and incompatible responses (relaxation, normal When/if responses breathing, coping thoughts/images, voluntary parasympathetic activity in breathing, general) with images of CS’s, this leads to new CS-CR associations over new over trials, called “higher-order conditioning”. trials, ”. • The new learning creates a “safety memory” which can be activated by cortical processes to inhibit fear-output by amygdala. cortical • Thus extinction processes of old fear learning typcially involves learning fear-inhibition behaviors via counterconditioning fear-inhibition Related Principles • EXPOSURE and Extinction are fundamental to behavioral change as Extinction result of SD result • In C. Conditioning Terms, breaking old associative bonds (CS/UCS relations) through exposure, extinction, and re-conditioning leads to relations) learning of new associative bonds learning A Theoretical Distinction: • Note the difference: Systematic Desensitization VS. In Vivo Note In Desensitization Desensitization • what is nature of exposure in SD vs. In Vivo Desensitization? what exposure SD In • A: In SD exposure is ... Mental and cognitive exposure. A: SD Mental • • Whereas in In Vivo Desensitization exposure is ... Actually In Actually experiencing it. Gary Larson’s Images of “Exposure” Gary Learning II: Basic Concepts in Operant Conditioning: • • • • Reinforcement, Punishment. Reinforcement, Positive and Negative Reinforcement Shaping Schedules of Reinforcement and their effects on learning Videoclip: B. F. Skinner’s World View Shaping Shaping • Consequences of Behavior determine its survival (as in Thorndike’s “law of effect”) of • Complex sequences of behavior are learned gradually, through selective positive reinforcement or shaping of “successive approximations” of shaping target behavior • In video-clip, the pigeon is shaped first to turn in a circle, then eventually to solve math problems and play the piano • Examples: toilet training; learning a motor skill; learning “manners”; reading; good study habits; social charm and influence reading; Reinforcement: The Fundamental Idea Reinforcement • Reinforcement refers to the process of strengthening or increasing the Reinforcement strengthening the probability of behavior of • Any Stimulus that increases/strengthens the behavior which precedes it is precedes called a reinforcer; there are positive and negative reinforcers (examples reinforcer below) below) • Increase in behavior involved; due to different kinds of reinforcing contingencies. You will do more when there is positive reinforcement and contingencies. more when it is negative reinforcement because in both situations they get more what they want. what Positive Reinforcement • When a pleasant/positive stimulus follows a behavior and strengthens it, When follows the behavior is said to have been positively reinforced. Given in order to positively Given encourage you to do something again. encourage • Positive Reinforcers: Money (strengthens what sort of behaviors?: Class Money list); Good Grades; privileges; hugs; high fives; pleasant drug effects on Good consciousness; social regard/approval; promotions and bonuses; warmconsciousness; fuzzies and other goodies from your honey-bun • Is alcohol positively reinforcing? What are the positive reinforcers for drinking alcohol in our culture? You feel good because of the actual buzz You it gives you, the satisfaction with how you act, or the social interactions it it creates. creates. • Advertisers want to make you feel good about their stuff therefore you approach it. In a beer commercial you will see people happy, smiling, hot approach women, ugly guy…he’ll “get laid.” Negative Reinforcement Negative • When a negative/aversive stimulus is terminated/removed following a When is behavior, resulting in the strengthening of that behavior, this behavior is behavior, said to have been negatively reinforced. negatively • A Negative reinforcer is the removal of an aversive stimulus, which leads Negative removal aversive which to an increase in the behavior that preceded the removal of the negative increase stimulus. stimulus. Examples of Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)Events: Examples Reinforcement • a parent gives in to a whining child. parent • What behavior is negatively reinforced here? What • {Hint: Identify the “aversive stimulus” that is removed; in this case it is whining child; then, identify which behavior that immediately whining preceded the removal of the aversive stimulus is likely to increase in preceded frequency; in this case it is giving in} giving • What behavior is positively reinforced here? Whining What Whining • Saying “I’m sorry” terminates Mom’s menacing glances Saying • What behavior is negatively reinforced here? If she stops the look What If when you say you are sorry than you are more likely to do this is in when future because it made a bad situation a good one. future • What behavior is positively reinforced here? You are positively What You reinforcing her because you are doing what she wants you to. reinforcing • Anxiety is decreased by performing compulsive rituals (OCD) • What behavior is negatively reinforced here? The compulsive action What The removes the fear of the dirt and germs. You are removing the excessive removes thought. thought. • Headaches stop when aspirin is ingested; Headaches • What behavior is negatively reinforced here? You get a headache, you What You take a pill, and you feel better. So now you are more likely to take that take pill again because it made you feel better. pill • Staying at home reduces overwhelming social anxiety; Staying • What behavior is negatively reinforced here? We avoid doing the right What We thing because the avoidance makes up feel better thing • Ingesting Drugs increases when it removes boredom, restlessness, anxiety, depression; • What behavior is negatively reinforced here? Why do we go out and What Why drink? - It’s fun (as long as you aren’t sleeping in bushes and throwing drink? up), stress reliever, social interactions, removes social anxiety, and up), allows you to feel more relaxed. You think you are being more yourself allows but really you are trying to change who you really are to feel more but comfortable around other people. SO when you are suffering boredom, when restlessness, etc. you turn to drugs because they make you feel better restlessness, (temporarily but you don’t know that). If it works then you will most (temporarily likely continue to use it as an escape. You are distancing yourself from likely anxiety. Punishment: The Fundamental Idea Punishment • Punishment refers to the process of weakening or reducing the Punishment weakening reducing probability of behavior probability • Any Stimulus that weakens the strength of, or reduces the probability of, a behavior is called a punisher. Theoretically always causes a decrease in Theoretically behavior- makes something less likely to occur. • Extinction occurs when a behavior that has been built up through reinforcement is no longer being reinforced. If you trained your dog by reinforcement giving him a treat each time and you stop giving him treats, he will most giving probably not listen anymore. probably • Speeding ticket- A speeding ticket will decrease speeding but probably Speeding speeding only in the area where you got your ticket originally. Punishment only only works in narrow situations. Most people can get away with things most of works the time and will therefore continue their behavior. • Examples: Electric Shock; Social Disapproval; Monetary fines; jail terms; spankings; cold shoulders; averted eyes; suspension of privileges; terms; “Bad” Grades Grades • Is an aversive stimulus always a punisher?—the case of the class clown. You send the class clown to the principles office (punishment) hoping he You won’t do it as much…but he does it more. What you think is punishment won’t may not be punishment to the person you are applying into. may • Why is punishment often ineffective?—the case of the speeding ticket Schedules of Reinforcement: STUDY IN TEXTBOOK • Interval Schedules vs. Ratio Schedules • Fixed Schedules vs. Variable Schedules • Fixed Interval, Fixed Ratio, Variable Interval, Variable Ratio (can you generate an example of each?) generate • FI: Fixed Interval FI: Fixed • Example: • FR: Fixed Ratio FR: Fixed • Example: • VI: Variable Interval VI: Variable • Example: You need to engage in a lot of gambling in hopes of being Example: You reinforced. reinforced. • VR: Variable Ratio VR: Variable • Example: Hard work in school or business is reinforced only occasionally, but these reinforcement occasions often produce strong occasionally, and lasting effects and Acquisition and Maintenance of Behavior • Fixed Ratio Schedules—especially FR 1:1 schedules, or “continuous Fixed FR reinforcement”-- produce fastest learning, but behavior extinguishes reinforcement relatively quickly if contingencies change. A fixed ration schedule of relatively reinforcement where there’s one behavior and one reinforcer. Every time reinforcement you act you get reinforced. If you only give continuous reinforcement and you don’t alter it, than the behavior will drop in strength when you stop giving don’t the reinforcement. the • Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement (best example: variable ratio variable schedules) produces slower learning of behavior, but these behaviors are produces the most resistant to extinction. A variable ratio schedule will allow you to variable control behavior but over a slower period of time. In the case of training a control dog, after sometime you will not even need to reinforce with a treat, but dog, just with a good job boy. just • Animal and Coaching Teaching Tip: Start with FR: 1:1 then “fade” to partial schedules with increasingly infrequent reinforcement partial Learning III: Basic Concepts in Social Learning Theory • Philosophically, Social Learning Theory was the start of the break from Behaviorism by re-introducing the importance of internal mediating Behaviorism forces--the “O’s” in the so-called S-O-R model contrasting with Watson’s forces--the S-R model. Recognizing that we have thoughts, ideas, attitudes, and brain Recognizing tissue. tissue. • Social Learning Theory Focuses on Observational Learning Phenomena, Social Observational or Imitation Learning. This type of learning also is sometimes called This “Modeling” We have never been reinforced. We imitate someone else We because we have seen and noticed that it has led to positive consequences because for someone else, so we want to give it a try. for • Social/Observational Learning involves “Vicarious” Learning (or Social/Observational “Vicarious” vicarious conditioning, vicarious reinforcement) from observation of vicarious “Models.” • (Definition #3 of “vicarious” at http://www.m-w.com/cgi(Definition http://www.m-w.com/cgibin/dictionary : experienced or realized through imaginative or experienced sympathetic participation in the experience of another) sympathetic • Vicarious reinforcement is based on vicarious experiences (what we experience when we observe things happening to other people). We are experience experiencing their experience in our experience. Based on observations experiencing and models. • Mirror Neuron- The neuron in our body that is activated when you are Mirror The watching someone else do something. The very act of watching watching activates your own processes that are in your own head doing the same activates action. action. Next Slide Shows Results from a Classic Experiment by Albert Bandura: Next • Associate with social learning theory • Had two groups of children watch a movie of an adult beating up and being aggressive with a bobo doll (with a positive reinforcement) and being another watch an adult beating up a doll receiving a punishment. Later another the children are allowed to play and are presented with certain the circumstances. circumstances. o Aggressive models rewarded- performed more (2x) aggressive acts than did the children being punished. acts o Aggressive models punished- performed half as many aggressive acts then did the children being rewarded. aggressive Revealing the Influence of Modeling of Aggressive Behavior in Social Learning Learning • What is the IV here? • What is the DV here? • Can you describe why these results challenge the strict view of strict Can why behaviorists like Watson and Skinner? behaviorists Social Learning Theory (Continued) • Studies of Modeling seemed to prove, to the Social Learning Theorists, that Direct Reinforcement and Punishment is Unnecessary for Learning. Direct • We do not need to be shaped directly; our behavior is influenced by observational learning and cognitive processes. • We learn not only by direct reinforcement, punishment, and schedules of reinforcement, but also through vicarious reinforcement and/or also vicarious punishment punishment Four Cognitive “O” factors in S-O-R model are critical for learning: • Attention: Being aware of the situation around you. Observational Attention: Being memory. memory. • Retention: While paying attention you need to integrate what you are While experiencing into LTMs experiencing • Reproduction: Replicate what you have learned in actions or words. Reproduction: Replicate • Motivation: You have to care and be motiated to learn and show what you Motivation: You learned. Without motivation you won’t do any of the above. learned. • Relation to Edward Tolman’s Latent Learning/Cognitive: We know more Relation Latent than we show in performance. He put rats in mazes and tried to figure out He how they learn. Part of what happens is that rats develop cognitive maps how and they show latent learning (may not be expressed). They have learned and a map of the territory they are living in. We learn a lot of things that we map never get tested on, rats were not tested on everything they we dealing never with in their environment. He studied that without being tested, they were with still learning things. Seligman’s Helplessness Model Seligman’s • Triadic experiment (yoked design) {see pages 22-30} Put 8 dogs through a Triadic Put particular experience particular • Group 1: Controllable Shock- a dog was put in a situation where it Group Controllable received a shock, but it could escape it. received • Group 2: Uncontrollable Shock- a dog receives a shock but feels Group Uncontrollable helpless and like its inescapable. helpless • Group 3: • Put the dogs in a new situation in a shuttle box where all they had to do was jump over a barrier and escape the shock. But only the group one was dogs escaped because group two had the idea in their head that they dogs could not escape it. could • Results: 8 of the controllable shocked dogs escaped, only 2 of the Results: of uncontrollable shocked dogs escaped. • Seligman’s conclusions: Learned helplessness- in a bad experience Seligman’s Learned something is learned which is an internal state (motivational and something emotional) of learned helplessness. A state wherein the animal believes emotional) that they can’t do anything to control what’s happening to them. This that leaves them helpless and depressed, most of them laid down and leaves whimpered. Why should I do anything if nothing I did in the past made a whimpered. difference. difference. • Helplessness, Social Learning, and the S-O-R model • Human analog studies? ...
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