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AT 160. Ch12 alcohol. FA06

AT 160. Ch12 alcohol. FA06 - Chapter 12 Chapter Alcohol Use...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Chapter Alcohol Use, Misuse, and Abuse AT 160 Fall 2006 Types of Alcohol Types Pure alcohol Colorless liquid Fermented from sugar Methyl Alcohol (wood alcohol) Poisonous Never drink Ethyl Alcohol (ethanol) Alcohol in beverages Alcohol Content Alcohol 0.5-80% of ethyl alcohol = considered an 0.5-80% alcoholic beverage alcoholic Proof = Twice the percentage of alcohol • 100-proof = 50% alcohol What is a drink? One bottle or can of beer (12 oz) = 5% alcohol One glass (4 oz) of table wine = 12% alcohol One glass (2.5 oz) of fortified wine = 20% alcohol One shot (1 oz) of distilled spirits = 50% alcohol Blood Alcohol Concentration Blood Percent of alcohol in blood stream 0.05 – relaxation, euphoria, positive sensations of 0.05 drinking drinking Past 0.05 – lose control of speech, balance, emotions 0.2 – pass out 0.3 – possible coma 0.4 – possible death Measured through breath or urine samples Federal Department of Transportation 0.08 percent BAC = DUI • 150lb man/three drinks in an hour Your Response to Alcohol is Dependent on: Dependent How fast/much you How drink (metabolism by liver) liver) What you are What drinking? (% alcohol concentration) concentration) Size Gender Women have lower Women amount of stomach enzyme Other drugs Family history Eating Expectations Absorption rate Similar to placebo Physical tolerance Race Age How Much is Too Much? How National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and National Alcoholism (NIAAA) Alcoholism Men: no more than 2 drinks a day Women: no more than 1 drink a day American Heart Association (AHA) Alcohol should not account for more than 15% of total Alcohol daily calories daily Max of 1.75 ounces of alcohol per day • • • 3 beers 2 mixed drinks 3 ½ glasses of wine Knowing your own limit Gender, size, weight Ulcers, medications, driving, pregnant Dangers of alcohol use increases with more you Dangers drink drink Heavy drinking destroys the liver, weakens the Heavy heart, elevates blood pressure, damages the brain, and increases risks of cancer brain, Boundary between safe and dangerous drinking Boundary isn’t the same for everyone isn’t Intoxication Intoxication “Clinically significant maladaptive behavioral or Clinically psychological changes to a substance” psychological Examples AKA = “Being drunk” Inappropriate sexual behavior Mood changes Impaired judgment Ranges from mild inebriation to loss of Ranges consciousness consciousness Intoxication Intoxication Signs/Symptoms Slurred speech Poor coordination Staggered gait Abnormal eye movements Poor memory Stupors Stupors Coma Treatment Time and a protective environment Recognize when to get medical treatment The Impact of Alcohol The 15 minutes to reach bloodstream Through stomach, upper intestines Peaks within an hour Bloodstream carries it to liver, heart, and Bloodstream brain brain Liver metabolizes 95% to CO2 and water, other 5% is excreted other Diuretic Body temperature The Impact of Alcohol The Stomach Triggers acid secretions Irritate stomach lining – causes vomiting May cause ulcers in long-term Liver Metabolizes excess into fat Attracts white blood and fat cells If WBC attack liver, will cause irreversible If damage damage The Impact of Alcohol The Weight One drink usually has about 100 calories Alcohol stimulates the appetite Cardiovascular System “Moderate” drinkers less likely to have heart attacks • Possibly boosts HDLs & reduces blood clots • VERY preliminary findings Drinking increases free radicals Increase risk for heart disease, stroke Directly weakens the heart muscle The Impact of Alcohol The Breast Cancer Immune System Unexplained relationship Can inhibit production of WBC Decrease ability to fight off infection Brain Damages, destroys cells Temporary: Impairs judgment, dulls senses, impairs Temporary: physical coordination physical Long term: Impaired learning ability and cognitive Long function function Promotes release of stress chemicals Why People Drink Why Celebrations Friendships Social ease Self Medication Role Models Advertising Patterns of Alcohol Use Patterns Abstinence Light Drinking (< 3 drinks a week) Infrequent Drinking Moderate Drinking Moderate Light vs heavy – different to each environment Problem Drinking Men: 3-4 drinks per day, no more than 3x per week Women: 2-3 drinks per day, no more than 3x per week Social Drinking Refers to frequency not quantity < 1 month, > 1 year High vs. low maximum Drinking interferes with activities of daily living Binge Drinking 4-5 drinks per sitting Drinking in College Drinking Continually been a part of college life May or may not interfere with school or May work responsibilities work Can become problematic or tragic Single episode combined with poor judgment Single or bad luck = life altering and sometimes lifeor threatening consequences Drinking in College Drinking Estimated that students spend $5.5 billion Estimated on alcohol on More than spent on books, soda, coffee, juice, More and milk combined and Total amount consumed is about 430 Total million gallons million Enough for every college and university to fill Enough an Olympic size swimming pool an Prevalence of College Drinking Prevalence According to several reports: More students abstain today More • About 19.3% vs 16.4% in 1993 More students say that they drink primarily to get More drunk drunk Fewer students attend or drink heavily at fraternity Fewer and sorority parties and • More are drinking heavily at off-campus parties Women are as likely to drink, but men drink more Women heavily heavily • Half of college men and a third of college women report Half drinking in excess drinking Drinking in College Drinking Heavy drinking is most likely to occur at events Heavy where: where: Many people are becoming intoxicated Illicit (illegal) drugs are available Drinking games are played • Dangerous because they can result in high levels of Dangerous intoxication in a short period of time intoxication Most dramatic increase is in women Eight in ten female undergraduates say they drink One in four get drunk three or more times a week When comparing college sports fans to When non-sports fans non-sports Sports fans are: • • • More likely to engage in binge drinking Have a heavy drinking style Report of alcohol related problems Freshmen are especially vulnerable to Freshmen dangerous drinking patterns dangerous As they struggle to adapt/fit into college As lifestyle lifestyle Reasons? • • • • First time drinkers Don’t know their limits Trying to fit in/be like others New-found independence Other patterns of heavy drinking: Students in competitive academic Students environments environments • Used to reduce their anxiety and pressures to Used perform perform Athletes have higher drinking rates Members of sororities and fraternities • Their drinking norms are more extreme and Their acknowledge that heavy drinking occurs acknowledge Binge Drinking on Campus Binge Defined as the consumption of five or Defined more alcoholic drinks in a row by men and four or more by women four Is the leading cause of preventable death Is among undergraduates among Most serious threat to their intellectual, Most physical, and psychological development physical, Prevalence of Binge Drinking Prevalence The number of frequent binge drinkers has The increased in the last decade increased 2 out of 5 students report binge drinking Account for almost 70 percent of all Account alcohol consumed by college students alcohol More in 4 year colleges than 2 year Many more cases in those living in Many fraternity/sorority houses (65.9%) fraternity/sorority Prevalence of Binge Drinking Prevalence More women now binge 41.2% report at least one binge within the previous 41.2% two weeks two 17.4% are frequent bingers Unplanned sexual activities, date rape, and Unplanned sexual assault are 150% more likely among women who drink women Sophomore, junior, and senior women are much Sophomore, less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking less Why do Students Binge? Why Many factors Low price Easy access • More alcoholic outlets (bars, parties) Attending a school or living with more binge Attending drinkers drinkers Belief that friends are likely to binge Have parents who drank or did not discourage Have drinking drinking Recreational drinking before age 16 Bingeing can be a product of the college Bingeing environment environment More binge at beginning of semesters Cut back as semester progresses and Cut academic loads increase academic Peaks following exams, home football Peaks weekends, and during spring break weekends, Increase again at the end of a semester Underage Drinking on Campus Underage Drink less often than older students But tend to drink more heavily and to But experience more negative alcohol related consequences consequences Doing something they regretted Forgetting where they were or what they did Causing property damage Getting into trouble with police Being hurt or injured The Toll of College Drinking The Many dangerous choices Drinking and driving • More than 2 million drive after drinking • More than 3 million ride with drivers that drank • 1400 die from alcohol related unintentional injuries Most from car crashes Two thirds of college suicides Nine of ten rapes 95% of violent crimes on campus The Toll of College Drinking The Increased sexual risks Heavy drinking correlated with: • • • • Sex without a condom Increased numbers of sexual partners Sexual attacks on women Increased risk of sexual transmitted infections The Toll of College Drinking The Four in ten college students have Four experienced alcohol related blackouts that led to risky behavior in the past year led Unprotected sex Vandalizing property Driving Females at greater risk than men The Toll of College Drinking The About 300,000 of today’s college students About will eventually die from alcohol related causes, including causes, Drunk-driving accidents Cirrhosis of the liver Various cancers Heart disease Sexually transmitted diseases (HIV and AIDS) Protecting Yourself Protecting Best Advice Be safe Know your limits Try to avoid the risks associated with drinking Alcohol Related Problems Alcohol Abuse Continued use of alcohol despite awareness Continued of social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems related to drinking physical Dependence Strong cravings For pleasure Relieving stress Tolerance/Withdrawal Tolerance/Withdrawal Tolerance Need more alcohol to produce desired affects Withdrawal Signs/symptoms associated with Signs/symptoms discontinuing alcohol use discontinuing Responsible Drinking Responsible Don’t drink alone Don’t use as medicine Develop a plan Alternate Alternate alcoholic/nonalcoholic/nonalcoholic drinks Drink slow Eat before and while Eat you are drinking you Beware of mixers Don’t make it a Don’t primary focus of entertainment entertainment Learn to say “no” Stay safe Hangovers Hangovers Medically termed veisalgia Variety of symptoms Dry mouth, headaches, irritability, blood shot Dry eyes, sensitivity to light and/or noise, nausea, vomiting vomiting Causes Dehydration Metabolic poison, irritates lining of stomach Withdrawal Withdrawal Mild to moderate psychological symptoms: Mild Feeling of jumpiness or nervousness Feeling Feeling of shakiness Feeling Anxiety Anxiety Irritability or easily excited Irritability Emotional volatility, rapid emotional changes Emotional Depression Depression Fatigue Fatigue Difficulty with thinking clearly Difficulty Bad dreams Bad Mild to moderate physical symptoms: Mild Headache - general, pulsating Headache Sweating, especially the palms of the hands or the Sweating, face Nausea Nausea Vomiting Vomiting Loss of appetite Loss Insomnia, sleeping difficulty Insomnia, Paleness Paleness Rapid heart rate (palpitations) Rapid Eyes, pupils different size (enlarged, dilated pupils) Eyes, Skin, clammy Skin, Abnormal movements Abnormal • Tremor of the hands Tremor • Involuntary, abnormal movements of the eyelids Involuntary, Severe symptoms: Severe A state of confusion and hallucinations state (visual) -- known as delirium tremens Agitation Agitation Fever Fever Convulsions Convulsions "Black outs" -- when the person forgets what "Black happened during the drinking episode and/or periods afterwards periods Alcoholism Alcoholism A chronic disease Progressive and fatal Not simply the inability to say “no” Type 1: heavy drinking begins in response Type to an external circumstance, after age 25 to Type 2: close relative to an alcoholic Type where heavy drinking can begin before age 25 age Warning Signs Warning Experiencing headaches, nausea, stomach pain, Experiencing heartburn, gas, fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, heart palpitations after drinking palpitations Needing a drink in the morning to start the day Denying problems Regretting things you did while drinking Mood swings Sleep problems Depression and paranoia Forgetting what happened while drinking Having 5+ drinks a day What Leads to Alcoholism? What Genetics Heredity creates 2/3 risk of becoming Heredity alcoholic alcoholic Stress / Traumatic experiences Depression & anxiety disorders Parental alcoholism Behavioral relationship Drug abuse Medical Complications of Alcoholism Alcoholism Cardiovascular disease Cancer Brain damage Vitamin Deficiencies Digestive problems Accidents & injuries Higher mortality Medical Complications of Alcoholism Alcoholism Liver Disease Alcoholic Alcoholic hepatitis hepatitis Cirrhosis Complete Complete failure failure Recovery Recovery Lifelong process First two years are most difficult Relapse extremely common Detoxification: gradual withdrawal of Detoxification: alcohol alcohol New drugs developed to treat dependence Codependence Codependence Behavior of close family members or Behavior friends who act in ways to enable you to drink drink Making excuses Reinforcing denial Often need help with recovery as well Relapse prevention Relapse Techniques that help you deal with Techniques cravings cravings Stress management Self-control Communication skills ...
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